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The program development environment a novice programmer uses has been identified as having a significant impact on the outcome of the process of learning to program. Professional program development environments are developed specifically for professional programmers and are often utilised by educational institutions to teach novice programmers. Pedagogical(More)
This paper discusses the impact of an adaptive prototype in-car communication system (ICCS), called MIMI (Multimodal Interface for Mobile Info-communication), on driver distraction. Existing ICCSs attempt to minimise the visual and manual distraction, but more research needs to be done to reduce cognitive distraction. MIMI was designed to address usability(More)
This paper discusses how the driving context (driving events and distraction level) can be determined using a mobile phone equipped with several sensors. The majority of existing in-car communication systems (ICCS) available today are built-in and do not use the driving context. This creates two issues: firstly, the use of an ICCS is limited to specific(More)
In-car communication systems (ICCS) are becoming a common feature in today's cars, however they can cause distraction due to usability issues and competition for driver attention. Several multimodal interfaces have been designed and implemented using speech in order to allocate the driver's hands and eyes solely to the driving task. A lack of feedback and(More)
The issue of driver distraction remains critical despite efforts that aim to reduce its effects. In-Car Communication Systems (ICCS) were introduced to address visual and manual distraction occurring when using a mobile phone whilst driving. ICCS running on mobile phone have increased the number of people using ICCS as they can be installed at no cost and(More)
Novice programmers generally have difficulty learning to program and one of the problems contributing towards this is the program development environment used at tertiary institutions. A number of pedagogical program development environments have been developed specifically for novice programmers, but these have not been compared experimentally with(More)
Portable devices are ubiquitous and users are expecting more sophisticated and natural interactions, where the interface mimics and extends real world objects, such as paper. Visual communication languages are used on these media to convey a wealth of information, which can be analysed and automatically extracted. This research investigates how a digital(More)