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In this report we provide detailed data on the patterns and frequency of heel contact with terrestrial and arboreal supports in primates. These data can help resolve the question of whether African apes and humans are uniquely "plantigrade" (Gebo [1992] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 89:29-58; Gebo [1993a] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 91:382-385; Gebo [1993b](More)
Among the characteristics that are thought to set primate quadrupedal locomotion apart from that of nonprimate mammals are a more protracted limb posture and larger limb angular excursion. However, kinematic aspects of primate or nonprimate quadrupedal locomotion have been documented in only a handful of species, and more widely for the hind than the(More)
One trait that distinguishes the walking gaits of most primates from those of most mammalian nonprimates is the distribution of weight between the forelimbs and hindlimbs. Nonprimate mammals generally experience higher vertical peak substrate reaction forces on the forelimb than on the hindlimb. Primates, in contrast, generally experience higher vertical(More)
Primate hands can be classified into two broad categories on the basis of ray proportions and other features. Ectaxonic hands are characterized by a longer fourth ray and are found in most strepsirhines. Most haplorhines possess mesaxonic hands which are characterized by a longer third ray. Preuschoft et al. ([1993] in H. Preuschoft and D.J. Chivers (eds.):(More)
Modern humans possess a distinct and well-developed flexor pollicis longus muscle, an extrinsic thumb flexor which is "either rudimentary or absent" in great apes (Straus, 1942, p. 228). Previous workers (e.g., Napier, 1962; Susman, 1988) have related the origin of a well-developed flexor pollicis longus muscle to the acquisition of precision grasping and(More)
This book series melds the facts of organic diversity with the continuity of the evolutionary process. The volumes in this series will exemplify the diversity of theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches currently employed by primatologists and physical anthropologists. Specific coverage includes primate behavior in natural habitats and captive(More)
Three-dimensional simulations of a thermally stably stratified gas with a localized layer of toroidal magnetic field are carried out. The magnetic field gives rise to a magnetic buoyancy instability. Due to the presence of rotation the resulting fluid motions are helical and lead to an α-effect, i.e. to a component of the electromotive force in the(More)
The observed weakness of Mercury's magnetic field poses a long-standing puzzle to dynamo theory. Using numerical dynamo simulations, we show that it could be explained by a negative feedback between the magnetospheric and the internal magnetic fields. Without feedback, a small internal field was amplified by the dynamo process up to Earth-like values. With(More)
It is becoming more and more difficult to work out future strategies for the aerospace industry characterized by long product development cycles in a very complex environment with considerable uncertainties about the development of relevant factors. The application of scenario planning in the aircraft design process can help on the one hand to get a useful(More)
A leaf net photosynthesis model is presented driven by light and modulated by temperature and air humidity. From this the seasonal variation of CO2 uptake and release could be modelled to estimate the annual carbon fluxes of sun and shade leaves. In fully expanded leaves light is the major factor determining daily carbon balances, and highest observed daily(More)