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The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) and their relationship to the genetic code are examined from the evolutionary perspective. Despite a loose correlation between codon assignments and AARS evolutionary relationships, the code is far too highly structured to have been ordered merely through the evolutionary wanderings of these enzymes. Nevertheless, the(More)
Analysis of the genome sequence of the small hyperthermophilic archaeal parasite Nanoarchaeum equitans has not revealed genes encoding the glutamate, histidine, tryptophan and initiator methionine transfer RNA species. Here we develop a computational approach to genome analysis that searches for widely separated genes encoding tRNA halves that, on the basis(More)
In this study we investigated the kinetics of the gravitropic response of the Arabidopsis mutant rgr1 (reduced root gravitropism). Although the rate of curvature in rgr1, which is allelic to axr4, was smaller than in the wild type (ecotype Wassilewskija), curvature was initiated in the same region of the root, the distal elongation zone. The time lag for(More)
Splicing of mammalian precursor transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules involves two enzymatic steps. First, intron removal by the tRNA splicing endonuclease generates separate 5' and 3' exons. In animals, the second step predominantly entails direct exon ligation by an elusive RNA ligase. Using activity-guided purification of tRNA ligase from HeLa cell extracts, we(More)
O-Phosphoserine (Sep), the most abundant phosphoamino acid in the eukaryotic phosphoproteome, is not encoded in the genetic code, but synthesized posttranslationally. Here, we present an engineered system for specific cotranslational Sep incorporation (directed by UAG) into any desired position in a protein by an Escherichia coli strain that harbors a(More)
Aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) are the essential substrates for translation. Most aa-tRNAs are formed by direct aminoacylation of tRNA catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. However, a smaller number of aa-tRNAs (Asn-tRNA, Gln-tRNA, Cys-tRNA and Sec-tRNA) are made by synthesizing the amino acid on the tRNA by first attaching a non-cognate amino acid to the(More)
The short genes encoding transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules are highly conserved in both sequence and structure, reflecting the central role of tRNA in protein biosynthesis. The frequent occurrence of fragmented intron-containing tRNAs that require processing to form contiguous molecules is therefore surprising. Recent discoveries of permuted and split tRNA(More)
The major product of the Human Genome Project will be a series of linked data sets containing the genetic and physical location of all genes on each chromosome, plus the complete nucleotide sequence of the genome for humans and several model organisms. Here we summarize the current status of attempts to collect, analyze, and distribute this information in(More)
A wheat genomic library was screened with two synthetic oligonucleotides (24 and 25 bases in length) complementary to a partial cDNA clone encoding a glutenin gene [Thompson et al. (1983) Theor. Appl. Genet. 67, 87-96]. Glutenins are large molecular weight aggregated proteins of grain endosperm, and major determinants of bread making quality of wheat. Of(More)