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The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) and their relationship to the genetic code are examined from the evolutionary perspective. Despite a loose correlation between codon assignments and AARS evolutionary relationships, the code is far too highly structured to have been ordered merely through the evolutionary wanderings of these enzymes. Nevertheless, the(More)
Analysis of the genome sequence of the small hyperthermophilic archaeal parasite Nanoarchaeum equitans has not revealed genes encoding the glutamate, histidine, tryptophan and initiator methionine transfer RNA species. Here we develop a computational approach to genome analysis that searches for widely separated genes encoding tRNA halves that, on the basis(More)
In this study we investigated the kinetics of the gravitropic response of the Arabidopsis mutant rgr1 (reduced root gravitropism). Although the rate of curvature in rgr1, which is allelic to axr4, was smaller than in the wild type (ecotype Wassilewskija), curvature was initiated in the same region of the root, the distal elongation zone. The time lag for(More)
Splicing of mammalian precursor transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules involves two enzymatic steps. First, intron removal by the tRNA splicing endonuclease generates separate 5' and 3' exons. In animals, the second step predominantly entails direct exon ligation by an elusive RNA ligase. Using activity-guided purification of tRNA ligase from HeLa cell extracts, we(More)
O-Phosphoserine (Sep), the most abundant phosphoamino acid in the eukaryotic phosphoproteome, is not encoded in the genetic code, but synthesized posttranslationally. Here, we present an engineered system for specific cotranslational Sep incorporation (directed by UAG) into any desired position in a protein by an Escherichia coli strain that harbors a(More)
Aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) are the essential substrates for translation. Most aa-tRNAs are formed by direct aminoacylation of tRNA catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. However, a smaller number of aa-tRNAs (Asn-tRNA, Gln-tRNA, Cys-tRNA and Sec-tRNA) are made by synthesizing the amino acid on the tRNA by first attaching a non-cognate amino acid to the(More)
The major product of the Human Genome Project will be a series of linked data sets containing the genetic and physical location of all genes on each chromosome, plus the complete nucleotide sequence of the genome for humans and several model organisms. Here we summarize the current status of attempts to collect, analyze, and distribute this information in(More)
Continuous culture, transcriptome arrays, and measurements of cellular amino acid pools and tRNA charging levels were used to determine the response of Methanococcus maripaludis to leucine limitation. For comparison, the responses to phosphate and H2 limitations were measured as well. In addition, the effect of growth rate was determined. Leucine limitation(More)
The micronutrient selenium is present in proteins as selenocysteine (Sec). In eukaryotes and archaea, Sec is formed in a tRNA-dependent conversion of O-phosphoserine (Sep) by O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase (SepSecS). Here, we present the crystal structure of Methanococcus maripaludis SepSecS complexed with PLP at 2.5 A resolution.(More)