Dieter Riemann

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OBJECTIVE Psychometric evaluation of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for primary insomnia. METHODS The study sample consisted of 80 patients with primary insomnia (DSM-IV). The length of the test-retest interval was either 2 days or several weeks. Validity analyses were calculated for PSQI data and data from sleep diaries, as well as(More)
The concentration of cytokines such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been reported to be elevated in depressed and schizophrenic patients and, in healthy persons, upon stress. Interleukin-6 plasma levels were determined in depressed (n = 12) and schizophrenic (n = 32) patients during the acute state of illness and after remission at approximately 8 weeks after(More)
Primary insomnia is defined as difficulties in falling asleep, maintaining sleep or non-restorative sleep accompanied by significantly impaired daytime functioning in the absence of a specific physical, mental or substance-related cause. The current review provides substantial support for the concept that hyperarousal processes from the molecular to the(More)
BACKGROUND In many patients with depression, symptoms of insomnia herald the onset of the disorder and may persist into remission or recovery, even after adequate treatment. Several studies have raised the question whether insomniac symptoms may constitute an independent clinical predictor of depression. This meta-analysis is aimed at evaluating(More)
Disturbances of sleep are typical for most depressed patients and belong to the core symptoms of the disorder. Polysomnographic sleep research has demonstrated that besides disturbances of sleep continuity, in depression sleep is characterized by a reduction of slow wave sleep and a disinhibition of REM sleep, with a shortening of REM latency, a(More)
Insomnia disorder is defined as difficulties in initiating/maintaining sleep and/or non-restorative sleep accompanied by decreased daytime functioning, persisting for at least four weeks. For many patients suffering from depression and anxiety, insomnia is a pervasive problem. Many of the aetiological theories of insomnia postulate that heightened emotional(More)
BACKGROUND Over recent years, the use of antidepressants for the symptomatic treatment of insomnia has grown substantially, but controlled studies are still lacking. Our study is the first investigation to prove objective efficacy and tolerability of low doses of a sedating antidepressant in a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled manner in(More)
The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and treatment modalities of insomnia in general practice. To investigate the course of insomnia, a longitudinal study design was adopted. Two thousand five hundred and twelve patients (age 18–65 years) were investigated with a questionnaire in general practice (T1). Four months later (T2) and again 2 years later(More)