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A plexus of lymphatic vessels guides interstitial fluid, passenger leukocytes, and tumor cells toward regional lymph nodes. Microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) of lymph channels (LECs) are difficult to distinguish from those of blood vessels (BECs) because both express a similar set of markers, such as CD31, CD34, podocalyxin, von Willebrand factor (vWF),(More)
In this article a protocol for distributed reference counting is developed and proved correct. It is pointed out, how it can be used to detect instemces where update in place is allowed. An implementation scheme is presented that requires bookkeeping messages only for tire copying of references across processor boundaries and for the deletion of references(More)
Certain types of dendritic cells (DCs) appear in inflammatory lesions of various etiologies, whereas other DCs, e.g., Langerhans cells (LCs), populate peripheral organs constitutively. Until now, the molecular mechanism behind such differential behavior has not been elucidated. Here, we show that CD1a ϩ LC precursors respond selectively and specifically to(More)
Human epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) bearing IgE are found in disease states associated with hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. When studying the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon, immunohistology revealed that a majority of epidermal LC from normal skin of healthy individuals can specifically bind monomeric IgE. IgE binding to LC could neither be prevented(More)
Certain types of dendritic cells (DCs) appear in inflammatory lesions of various etiologies, whereas other DCs, e.g., Langerhans cells (LCs), populate peripheral organs constitutively. Until now, the molecular mechanism behind such differential behavior has not been elucidated. Here, we show that CD1a(+) LC precursors respond selectively and specifically to(More)
Theoretic investigations of the "source-filter" model have indicated a pronounced acoustic interaction of glottal source and vocal tract. Empirical investigations of formant pattern variations apart from changes in vowel identity have demonstrated a direct relationship between the fundamental frequency and the patterns. As a consequence of both findings,(More)
Endo/lysosomal proteases control two key events in antigen (Ag) presentation: the degradation of protein Ag and the generation of peptide-receptive major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. Here we show that the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta rapidly increase the activity of cathepsin (cat)(More)
BACKGROUND Metastasis is associated with poor prognosis for melanoma. The formation of metastases is a multi-step process, in which cancer cells can subsequently acquire the potential to intravasate into the blood or lymph vessels, disseminate through the circulation, extravasate through the endothelium and invade the connective tissue. There is increasing(More)