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The optimal stimulation site in subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) was evaluated by correlation of the stereotactic position of the stimulation electrode with the electrophysiologically specified dorsal STN border. In a series of 25 electrodes, best clinical results with least energy consumption were found in contacts located in the dorsolateral(More)
Primary hepatocytes represent a well-accepted in vitro cell culture system for studies of drug metabolism, enzyme induction, transplantation, viral hepatitis, and hepatocyte regeneration. Recently, a multicentric research program has been initiated to optimize and standardize new in vitro systems with hepatocytes. In this article, we discuss five of these(More)
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is an established therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). A manic episode with psychotic symptoms induced by STN-DBS occurred in a previously psychiatrically healthy patient, focusing on the role of STN-DBS in influencing not only motor but also emotional behaviour.
Unlike the mechanisms involved in the death of neuronal cell bodies, those causing the elimination of processes are not well understood owing to the lack of suitable experimental systems. As the neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR) is known to restrict the growth of neuronal processes, we engineered mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to express an Ngfr (p75(NTR))(More)
An obligate intracellular parasite infecting Ectocarpus spp. and other filamentous marine brown algae is described. The pathogen forms an unwalled multinucleate syncytium (plasmodium) within the host cell cytoplasm and causes hypertrophy. Cruciform nuclear divisions occur during early development. Mature plasmodia become transformed into single sporangia,(More)
Seasonal and intra-thallus variations of energy content and chemical composition were assessed in an intertidal population of Macrocystis in southern Chile. Phylloid protein and lipid from cultured material were compared with seasonal variation in native Macrocystis. Furthermore, populations in northern and southern Chile and Falkland Islands were compared(More)
Atrial (ANP) and C-type (CNP) natriuretic peptide generate physiological effects via selective activation of two closely related membrane receptors with guanylyl cyclase (GC) activity, known as GC-A and GC-B. As yet, however, the discrete roles for ANP/GC-A vs. CNP/GC-B signaling in many mammalian tissues are still poorly understood. We here used receptor(More)
Deep-brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus appears to reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesias, but whether this effect is caused by the reduction of the total levodopa ingestion or represents a direct effect on the motor system is unknown. Precision grip force of grasping movements and levodopa-induced dyskinesias was analyzed in 10 parkinsonian patients(More)
The cells responsible for production of the male sex hormone testosterone, the Leydig cells of the testis, are post-mitotic cells with neuroendocrine characteristics. Their origin during ontogeny and regeneration processes is still a matter of debate. Here, we show that cells of testicular blood vessels, namely vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes,(More)
Mechatronics is an area that merges multidisciplinary knowledge coming from mechanical engineering, electronics and computer technology. Vocational training in mechatronics requires the teaching of 'multi-skills' in various learning contexts, as well as a good blend of learning in the classroom and practical training in work surroundings. This paper(More)