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BACKGROUND Dual frontolimbic brain pathology has been suggested as a possible correlate of impulsivity and aggressive behavior. One previous study reported volume loss of the hippocampus and the amygdala in patients with borderline personality disorder. We measured limbic and prefrontal brain volumes to test the hypothesis that frontolimbic brain pathology(More)
We compared 12 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and six control subjects by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Significantly lower relative N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) levels were found in the right striatum of OCD patients, as well as a decrease of anterior cingulate NAA that correlated with severity of illness. Age and sex were correlated(More)
Over the last few years, awareness of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adults has increased. The precise etiology of ASD is still unresolved. Animal research, genetic and postmortem studies suggest that the glutamate (Glu) system has an important role, possibly related to a cybernetic imbalance between neuronal excitation and inhibition. To clarify the(More)
OBJECTIVE Craving for alcohol is probably involved in acquisition and maintenance of alcohol dependence to a substantial degree. However, the brain substrates and mechanisms that underlie alcohol craving await more detailed elucidation. METHOD Positron emission tomography was used to map regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 21 detoxified patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Everyday language relates depressed mood to visual phenomena. Previous studies point to a reduced sensitivity of subjective contrast perception in depressed patients. One way to assess visual contrast perception in an objective way at the level of the retina is to measure the pattern electroretinogram (PERG). To find an objective correlate of(More)
Depressive episodes as reversible mental states are likely to be associated with equally reversible brain states. These can be examined with a variety of functional imaging methods using repeated measures designs. Studies using such an approach are reviewed. Changes in medial frontal, and in particular, cingulate cortex are reported in a majority of(More)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in childhood and adolescence and in a considerable number of patients it persists into adulthood. A network of brain regions have been shown to be abnormal in ADHD. In the present study we used magnetic resonance volumetry to investigate a possible role of the orbitofrontal(More)
In clinical practice many adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ask for an additional psychotherapeutic intervention besides the medical therapy. In this paper we present a structured skill training program particularly tailored for adult patients with ADHD. The program is based on the principles of cognitive-behavioral(More)
The DSM-IV distinguishes three subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The predominantly inattentive subtype (ADD), the hyperactive-impulsive subtype (ADHD) and the combined subtype. We used short echo time (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (TE=30 ms, TR=3000 ms) for absolute quantification of neurometabolites using the LC model algorithm(More)
We compared a group of nine patients with panic disorder (DSM-III-R) and depression with a matched control group of nine dysthymic patients without a previous or actual history of panic attacks or anxiety with iomazenil SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) to evaluate panic-related abnormalities of the benzodiazepine receptor complex. The(More)