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An apparatus for the study of three-dimensional force systems and the resulting movements during orthodontic treatment is presented. The instrument consists of two force-torque transducers which are capable of recording both forces and torques simultaneously, in all spatial directions. Each sensor has a measuring range of 15N (450 Nmm) and a resolution of(More)
Guiding a tooth along an arch wire results in a counteracting frictional force. Clinically, a mesiodistally applied force must exceed the frictional force to produce a tooth movement. A friction-testing assembly simulating three-dimensional tooth rotations was constructed to study factors affecting friction magnitude. Five wire alloys (standard stainless(More)
To investigate cortical auditory and motor coupling in professional musicians, we compared the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity of seven pianists to seven non-musicians utilizing a passive task paradigm established in a previous learning study. The tasks involved either passively listening to short piano melodies or pressing keys on a(More)
Treatment options in orthodontics have been expanded by skeletal anchorage via mini-implants over the last few years. Sufficient primary stability is imperative to minimize implant loss rate. The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze the factors influencing primary stability: bone quality, implant-design, diameter, and depth of pilot drilling.(More)
Skeletal anchorage with mini-implants has greatly broadened the treatment possibilities in orthodontics over the last few years. To reduce implant failure rates, it is advisable to obtain adequate primary stability. The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze the impact of implant design and dimension on primary stability. Forty-two porcine iliac(More)
AIM Rapid palatal expansion (RPE) is used for treatment of skeletal crossbites. It may be combined with a face mask if the maxilla is to be protracted. Conventional tooth-borne appliances rely on an almost complete dentition to transmit the relatively high forces to the bony structures of the maxilla and midface. In most situations, tooth-borne appliances(More)
Orthodontic tooth movements are based on the ability of bone to react to mechanical stresses with the apposition and resorption of alveolar bone. Currently, the underlying biophysical, biochemical, and cellular processes are the subject of numerous studies. At present, however, an analytical description of orthodontic tooth movements including all(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyze the impact of the insertion angle on the primary stability of mini-implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 28 ilium bone segments of pigs were embedded in resin. Two different mini-implant sizes (Dual-Top Screw 1.6 x 8 mm and 2.0 x 10 mm) were inserted at seven different angles (30 degrees , 40 degrees , 50 degrees , 60 degrees ,(More)
Mini-implants are widely used as skeletal anchorage in orthodontics. To reduce implant loss rate, sufficient primary stability is required. This study quantitatively analysed the impact of bone quality and pre-drilling diameter on the insertion torque of five different mini-implants. Twenty pig bone segments were dissected and embedded in resin. The(More)
Sufficient primary stability is of importance for the survival of orthodontic mini-implants. This means that adequate torque has to be achieved during insertion. However, as moments exceeding the fracture resistance of a mini-implant may result in their fracture, the maximum torque load capacity should be known. In this study, the threshold torque values(More)