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Long-term bed-rest is used to simulate the effect of spaceflight on the human body and test different kinds of countermeasures. The 2nd Berlin BedRest Study (BBR2-2) tested the efficacy of whole-body vibration in addition to high-load resisitance exercise in preventing bone loss during bed-rest. Here we present the protocol of the study and discuss its(More)
Proteolytic enzyme expression was studied by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) immunoreactivity (-IR) in muscle biopsies from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal muscle atrophy (SMA) and chronic axonal neuropathies (CANP). In normal muscle MMP-2-, MMP-7-, and MMP-9-IR was localized at neuromuscular junctions, in vessels and nerve(More)
In nerve tissue the histochemical nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) reaction is considered a suitable marker for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. We have previously shown that the NOS-specific inhibitor L-nitroarginine (L-NNA) can block NADPH-d staining in intermediolateral (IML) neurons of the rat spinal cord: such a(More)
The effect of microgravity on skeletal muscles has so far been examined in rat and mice only after short-term (5-20 day) spaceflights. The mice drawer system (MDS) program, sponsored by Italian Space Agency, for the first time aimed to investigate the consequences of long-term (91 days) exposure to microgravity in mice within the International Space(More)
Adaptive changes of major body systems in astronauts during spaceflight can be simulated by strict anti-orthostatic head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest (BR), a ground-based microgravity (microG) model that provides a meaningful opportunity to study atrophy mechanisms and possible countermeasures under controlled experimental conditions. As nitric oxide (NO)(More)
Prolonged immobilization of the human body results in functional impairments and musculoskeletal system deconditioning that may be attenuated by adequate muscle exercise. In a 56-day horizontal bed rest campaign involving voluntary males we investigated the effects of vibration muscle exercise (RVE, 2x6 min daily) on the lower limb skeletal muscles using a(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide a clear terminology and classification of muscle injuries in order to facilitate effective communication among medical practitioners and development of systematic treatment strategies. METHODS Thirty native English-speaking scientists and team doctors of national and first division professional sports teams were asked to complete a(More)
Cartilage injury remains a challenge in orthopedic surgery as articular cartilage only has a limited capacity for intrinsic healing. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is a suitable technique for cartilage repair, but requires articular cartilage biopsies for autologous chondrocyte expansion. The use of heterotopic chondrocytes derived from(More)
The ryanodine receptor type-I (RyR1) is one key player of the excitation-contraction coupling (E-CC) machinery. However, RyR1 expression in human skeletal muscle disuse and plasticity changes are not well documented. We studied the expression and the functional modifications of RyR1 following prolonged bed rest (BR) without and with exercise countermeasure(More)
In this study the model of 7-day dry immersion (DI) was used. 17 male volunteers (23-29 years old) were divided in 2 groups: (i) 7-day DI without support (DI, n=9), (ii) 7-day DI using support stimulation (DIS, n=8). Support stimulator device exerted pressure of 0.2 +/- 0.15 kg/cm2 upon the plantar support zones simulating the walking pattern 6 times a day(More)