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Proteolytic enzyme expression was studied by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) immunoreactivity (-IR) in muscle biopsies from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal muscle atrophy (SMA) and chronic axonal neuropathies (CANP). In normal muscle MMP-2-, MMP-7-, and MMP-9-IR was localized at neuromuscular junctions, in vessels and nerve(More)
In nerve tissue the histochemical nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) reaction is considered a suitable marker for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. We have previously shown that the NOS-specific inhibitor L-nitroarginine (L-NNA) can block NADPH-d staining in intermediolateral (IML) neurons of the rat spinal cord: such a(More)
Long-term bed-rest is used to simulate the effect of spaceflight on the human body and test different kinds of countermeasures. The 2nd Berlin BedRest Study (BBR2-2) tested the efficacy of whole-body vibration in addition to high-load resisitance exercise in preventing bone loss during bed-rest. Here we present the protocol of the study and discuss its(More)
The effect of microgravity on skeletal muscles has so far been examined in rat and mice only after short-term (5-20 day) spaceflights. The mice drawer system (MDS) program, sponsored by Italian Space Agency, for the first time aimed to investigate the consequences of long-term (91 days) exposure to microgravity in mice within the International Space(More)
Recent advances in the molecular, biochemical, and anatomical aspects of postsynaptic membrane components at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are briefly reviewed focussing on assembly, architecture, and function of the multi-subunit dystrophin-protein complex (DPC) and its associated nitric oxide (NO)-signaling complex. Elucidation of unique structural(More)
Nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) can be selectively stained in neurons by either NADPH-diaphorase (i.e., NOS)-histochemistry or immunohistochemistry with antibodies raised against NOS, which apparently label identical reactive sites (Hope, B.T., G.J. Michael, K.M. Knigge, and S.R. Vincent, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:2811-2814, '91). We provide histochemical(More)
Spinal cord neurons in the intermediolateral column (IML) that innervate the adrenal medulla require target-derived factor(s) for their maintenance in vivo. Selective destruction of the adult rat adrenal medulla causes an approximate 25% loss of Nissl-stained IML neurons between spinal cord levels Th 4 weeks after surgery. We have previously suggested that(More)
Previously we reported that neuronal nitric oxide synthase type-1 (NOS-1) is expressed in skeletal myotubes in vitro. In the present paper we sought to determine whether agrin-induced membrane specializations known to include the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) on cultured myotubes may also contain NOS-1 and related molecules. After treatment with(More)
Transforming growth factors beta (TGF-beta), a family of pleiotropic cytokines, are widely distributed in the developing and adult nervous system. In order to further determine the neural functions of TGF-beta, we have localized the TGF-beta isoforms 1, 2 and 3 in the adult rat adrenal medulla and studied the neuroprotective capacity of one representative(More)