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Long-term bed-rest is used to simulate the effect of spaceflight on the human body and test different kinds of countermeasures. The 2nd Berlin BedRest Study (BBR2-2) tested the efficacy of whole-body vibration in addition to high-load resisitance exercise in preventing bone loss during bed-rest. Here we present the protocol of the study and discuss its(More)
Nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) can be selectively stained in neurons by either NADPH-diaphorase (i.e., NOS)-histochemistry or immunohistochemistry with antibodies raised against NOS, which apparently label identical reactive sites (Hope, B.T., G.J. Michael, K.M. Knigge, and S.R. Vincent, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:2811-2814, '91). We provide histochemical(More)
Adaptive changes of major body systems in astronauts during spaceflight can be simulated by strict anti-orthostatic head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest (BR), a ground-based microgravity (microG) model that provides a meaningful opportunity to study atrophy mechanisms and possible countermeasures under controlled experimental conditions. As nitric oxide (NO)(More)
Transforming growth factors beta (TGF-beta), a family of pleiotropic cytokines, are widely distributed in the developing and adult nervous system. In order to further determine the neural functions of TGF-beta, we have localized the TGF-beta isoforms 1, 2 and 3 in the adult rat adrenal medulla and studied the neuroprotective capacity of one representative(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide a clear terminology and classification of muscle injuries in order to facilitate effective communication among medical practitioners and development of systematic treatment strategies. METHODS Thirty native English-speaking scientists and team doctors of national and first division professional sports teams were asked to complete a(More)
In this study the model of 7-day dry immersion (DI) was used. 17 male volunteers (23-29 years old) were divided in 2 groups: (i) 7-day DI without support (DI, n=9), (ii) 7-day DI using support stimulation (DIS, n=8). Support stimulator device exerted pressure of 0.2 +/- 0.15 kg/cm2 upon the plantar support zones simulating the walking pattern 6 times a day(More)
Nitric oxide synthase, which generates the physiological messenger molecule nitric oxide, and its associated NADPH diaphorase (NADPHd) activity are distributed throughout selective neuronal populations of the central and peripheral nervous system. Considerable evidence has been accumulated to indicate that NADPHd activity labels cells lacking neuronal(More)
Proteolytic enzyme expression was studied by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) immunoreactivity (-IR) in muscle biopsies from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal muscle atrophy (SMA) and chronic axonal neuropathies (CANP). In normal muscle MMP-2-, MMP-7-, and MMP-9-IR was localized at neuromuscular junctions, in vessels and nerve(More)
Recently, it has been shown that in human striated muscle the signalling enzyme, brain-type nitric oxide synthase I (NOS I), is associated with the sarcolemma and complexes with dystrophin and/or members of the dystrophin complex. In order to find out whether there exists a regular association between NOS I and the complex, muscle biopsies from patients(More)
Prolonged immobilization of the human body results in functional impairments and musculoskeletal system deconditioning that may be attenuated by adequate muscle exercise. In a 56-day horizontal bed rest campaign involving voluntary males we investigated the effects of vibration muscle exercise (RVE, 2×6 min daily) on the lower limb skeletal muscles using a(More)