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Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy has been used to measure individual cone-photoreceptor directionalities in the living human eye. The directionality is determined at different retinal eccentricities where it is expected that cones have diameters ranging between 5-10μm, comparable to the spot size of the incident beam. Individual cone directionality values are(More)
An ultrasmall spot size scanning laser ophthalmoscope has been developed that employs an annular aberration-corrected incident beam to increase the effective numerical aperture of the eye thereby reducing the width of the probing light spot. Parafovea and foveal cone photoreceptor visibility determined from small area retinal image scans are discussed from(More)
We report a new variation of the conventional Z-scan method to characterize the third-order optical nonlinearity of photonic materials. By exploiting the combination of the eclipse Z-scan with a thermal nonlinearity management technique, we demonstrate an improvement in sensitivity and flexibility of the method to simultaneously characterize the thermal and(More)
The Stiles-Crawford effect that relates visibility to pupil point is typically expressed by a Gaussian function at any given wavelength of illumination. The pupil location of the maximum and the width of this function refer, respectively, to the pointing and waveguide properties of individual cone photoreceptors. In vision simulations, the function is(More)
We introduce a liquid-filled photonic crystal fiber to simulate a retinal cone photoreceptor mosaic and the directionality selective mechanism broadly known as the Stiles-Crawford effect. Experimental measurements are realized across the visible spectrum to study waveguide coupling and directionality at different managed waveguide parameters. The crystal(More)
We measured and analyzed the behavior of the fluorescence of tryptophan water solutions with and without silver nanoparticles, excited by one, two and three photon processes. Two different colloids with silver nanoparticles with distinct diameters (0.65 nm and 9 nm) were used in the experiments. Fluorescence quenching was observed with one and two photon(More)
In this work we determine the third, fifth- and seventh-order nonresonant nonlinear optical properties of silver nanoparticles (9 nm average diameter) colloids in aqueous solution under high intensity excitation. The nonlinear optical response and its dependence with the nanoparticles filling factor was measured and theoretically described. We show that for(More)
A novel wavefront sensor based on a microstructural array of waveguides is proposed. The method is based on the sensitivity in light-coupling efficiency to the wavefront gradient present at the entrance aperture of each waveguide in an array, and hence the amount of incident light that couples is influenced by wavefront aberrations. The concept is(More)