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Raft is a consensus algorithm for managing a replicated log. It produces a result equivalent to (multi-)Paxos, and it is as efficient as Paxos, but its structure is different from Paxos; this makes Raft more understandable than Paxos and also provides a better foundation for building practical systems. In order to enhance understandability, Raft separates(More)
RAMCloud is a DRAM-based storage system that provides inexpensive durability and availability by recovering quickly after crashes, rather than storing replicas in DRAM. RAMCloud scatters backup data across hundreds or thousands of disks, and it harnesses hundreds of servers in parallel to reconstruct lost data. The system uses a log-structured approach for(More)
RAMCloud is a storage system that provides low-latency access to large-scale datasets. To achieve low latency, RAMCloud stores all data in DRAM at all times. To support large capacities (1PB or more), it aggregates the memories of thousands of servers into a single coherent key-value store. RAMCloud ensures the durability of DRAM-based data by keeping(More)
The operating systems community has ignored network latency for too long. In the past, speed-of-light delays in wide area networks and unoptimized network hardware have made sub-100μs round-trip times impossible. However, in the next few years datacenters will be deployed with low-latency Ethernet. Without the burden of propagation delays in the datacenter(More)
Distributed consensus is fundamental to building fault-tolerant systems. It allows a collection of machines to work as a coherent group that can survive the failures of some of its members. Unfortunately, the most common consensus algorithm, Paxos, is widely regarded as difficult to understand and implement correctly. This dissertation presents a new(More)
In this paper a new method is used to calculate unsteady wind loadings acting on a railway vehicle. The method takes input data from wind tunnel testing or from computational fluid dynamics simulations (one example of each is presented in this article), for aerodynamic force and moment coefficients and combines these with fluctuating wind velocity time(More)