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OBJECTIVE Chronic lead poisoning and iron deficiency are concentrated in urban children from lower socioeconomic strata, and both impair neurocognitive development. Our study objective was to determine if iron fortification reduces blood lead levels in urban, lead-exposed, iron-deficient children in Bangalore, India. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A(More)
BACKGROUND Iron deficiency prevalence rates frequently exceed 50 % in young children in low-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended universal supplementation of young children where anaemia rates are >40 %. However, large randomized trials have revealed that provision of iron to young children caused serious adverse effects because(More)
BACKGROUND Although ferric pyrophosphate is a promising compound for iron fortification of foods, few data are available on the effect of food matrices, processing, and ascorbic acid on its bioavailability. OBJECTIVE We compared the relative bioavailability (RBV) of ferrous sulfate in an experimental form of micronized dispersible ferric pyrophosphate(More)
Few studies have evaluated the impact of fortification with iron-rich foods such as amaranth grain and multi-micronutrient powder (MNP) containing low doses of highly bioavailable iron to control iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children. We assessed the efficacy of maize porridge enriched with amaranth grain or MNP to reduce IDA in Kenyan preschool(More)
BACKGROUND In-home iron fortification for infants in developing countries is recommended for control of anaemia, but low absorption typically results in >80% of the iron passing into the colon. Iron is essential for growth and virulence of many pathogenic enterobacteria. We determined the effect of high and low dose in-home iron fortification on the infant(More)
Iron supplements acutely increase hepcidin, but the duration and magnitude of the increase, its dose dependence, and its effects on subsequent iron absorption have not been characterized in humans. Better understanding of these phenomena might improve oral iron dosing schedules. We investigated whether the acute iron-induced increase in hepcidin influences(More)
To determine if introduction of iodized salt induces thyroid autoimmunity in goitrous children, we conducted a prospective trial in iodine-deficient Moroccan schoolchildren (n = 323). Local salt was iodized at 25 microg iodine per gram of salt and distributed to households. Before introduction of iodized salt and at 10, 20, 40, and 52 weeks, we measured(More)
Particle size is an important determinant of Fe absorption from poorly soluble Fe compounds in foods. Decreasing the particle size of elemental iron powders increases their absorption. The effect of a reduction in particle size on the bioavailability of ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) is unclear. Encapsulation of iron compounds for food fortification may(More)
BACKGROUND Serum thyroglobulin appears to be a sensitive marker of thyroid dysfunction in endemic goiter. However, its value as an indicator of thyroid status in children after the introduction of iodized salt has not been tested. OBJECTIVE The objective was to optimize and validate a thyroglobulin assay on dried whole blood spots and to evaluate(More)
BACKGROUND Iron fortification of rice could be an effective strategy for reducing iron deficiency anemia in South Asia. OBJECTIVE We aimed to determine whether extruded rice grains fortified with micronized ground ferric pyrophosphate (MGFP) would increase body iron stores in children. DESIGN In a double-blind, 7-mo, school-based feeding trial in(More)