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Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-HT) is a neurotransmitter synthesized in the raphe nuclei of the brain stem and involved in the central control of food intake, sleep, and mood. Accordingly, dysfunction of the serotonin system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases. At the same time, serotonin is a peripheral hormone produced(More)
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. In the periphery, serotonin functions as a ubiquitous hormone involved in vasoconstriction and platelet function. Serotonin is synthesized independently in peripheral tissues and neurons by two different rate-limiting tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) isoenzymes. Here, we show that mice selectively(More)
In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 29 patients with painful diabetic neuropathy received 6 weeks of amitriptyline and 6 weeks of an "active" placebo that mimicked amitriptyline side effects. Amitriptyline was superior to placebo in relieving pain in weeks 3 through 6. Both steady, burning pain and lancinating pains were relieved. Patients able(More)
The liver can regenerate its volume after major tissue loss. In a mouse model of liver regeneration, thrombocytopenia, or impaired platelet activity resulted in the failure to initiate cellular proliferation in the liver. Platelets are major carriers of serotonin in the blood. In thrombocytopenic mice, a serotonin agonist reconstituted liver proliferation.(More)
BACKGROUND Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) is the rate-limiting enzyme in brain serotonin (5-HT) biosynthesis. Although dysfunction of 5-HT neurotransmission has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, the human TPH2 promoter has not been characterized in vitro. METHODS The functional relevance of TPH2 promoter polymorphisms was(More)
While serotonin (5-HT) co-localization with insulin in granules of pancreatic beta-cells was demonstrated more than three decades ago, its physiological role in the etiology of diabetes is still unclear. We combined biochemical and electrophysiological analyses of mice selectively deficient in peripheral tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph1-/-) and 5-HT to show(More)
Serotonin (5-HT) is a monoaminergic neurotransmitter involved in various processes in the mammalian nervous system with tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) as the rate-limiting enzyme in its biosynthesis. Interestingly, there is accumulating evidence that neurotransmitters including 5-HT are directly involved in cleavage divisions and morphogenetic movements(More)
Variations in the neurotransmitter content of secretory vesicles enable neurons to adapt to network changes. Vesicular content may be modulated by vesicle-associated Go(2), which down-regulates the activity of the vesicular monoamine transmitter transporters VMAT1 in neuroendocrine cells and VMAT2 in neurons. Blood platelets resemble serotonergic neurons(More)