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BACKGROUND The concept of palliative care differs according to cultures and traditions. In Spain, palliative care programs have expanded in recent years. The European Commission Research Project in Palliative Care Ethics has sponsored ongoing research to analyze and clarify the conceptual differences in providing palliative care to patients in European(More)
Persistent infections with carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause virtually all cervical cancers. Cervical HPV types (n > 40) also represent the most common sexually transmitted agents, and most infections clear in 1-2 years. The risks of persistence and neoplastic progression to cancer and its histologic precursor, cervical intraepithelial(More)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) types differ profoundly in cervical carcinogenicity. For the most carcinogenic type HPV16, variant lineages representing further evolutionary divergence also differ in cancer risk. Variants of the remaining 10 to 15 carcinogenic HPV types have not been well studied. In the first prospective, population-based study of HPV variants,(More)
We wished to compare the relative reproducibility and validity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 and CIN3 diagnoses. In a population-based cohort study (1993-2001) of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia in Costa Rica, we compared community pathologists' diagnoses with those of the 2 independent reviewers from the United States(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the cumulative incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II or worse (grade II+) or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III+ after short term persistence of prevalently detected carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV). DESIGN Population based cohort study. SETTING Guanacaste, Costa Rica. PARTICIPANTS 2282 sexually(More)
We report the rationale, design, methods and details of participation of a community-based, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of an HPV 16 and 18 vaccine conducted in two provinces of Costa Rica to investigate the efficacy and population impact of the vaccine in the prevention of cervical cancer precursors. More than 24,000 women between 18 and 25(More)
OBJECTIVE Cross-sectional analyses of our 10,000-woman, population-based Guanacaste cohort suggest a lag of > or =10 years between the peak of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the later peak of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3). We wanted to explore early HPV natural history and CIN 3 prospectively. STUDY DESIGN As part of the(More)
OBJECTIVE The Guanacaste study ("Guanacaste Project," or GP), was designed to investigate the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its cofactors in the development of cervical neoplasia and to evaluate new cervical cancer screening technologies. The follow-up phase of the GP was designed to study why a small proportion of women infected with HPV(More)
Determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 serological conversion and persistence were assessed in a population-based cohort of 10 049 women in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Serologic responses to HPV-16 were measured in 7986 women by VLP-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at both study enrollment (1993/94) and at 5-7 years of follow-up. Seropositive(More)
BACKGROUND A competitive Luminex Immunoassay (cLIA) has been developed to measure neutralizing antibodies against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16 and 18. METHODS In a cohort of 974 women from the Guanacaste Natural History Study, we studied the relationship of baseline cLIA and virus-like particle (VLP) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)(More)