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This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and(More)
Immune responses are normally targeted against microbial pathogens and not self-antigens by mechanisms that are only partly understood. Here we define a newly discovered pathway that prevents autoimmunity by limiting the levels on T lymphocytes of aco-stimulatory receptor, the inducible T-cell co-stimulator(ICOS). In sanroque mice homozygous for an M199R(More)
Mutations in the human ALMS1 gene are responsible for Alström syndrome, a disorder in which key metabolic and endocrinological features include childhood-onset obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes, as well as infertility. ALMS1 localizes to the basal bodies of cilia and plays a role in intracellular trafficking, but the biological functions of ALMS1(More)
During evolutionary adaptation in the immune system, host defense is traded off against autoreactivity. Signals through the costimulatory receptor CD28 enable T cells to respond specifically to pathogens, whereas those through the related costimulatory receptor, ICOS, which arose by gene duplication, are critical for affinity maturation and memory antibody(More)
Overactivity of the germinal center (GC) pathway resulting from accumulation of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells causes autoimmunity, underscoring the need to understand the factors that control Tfh cell homeostasis. Here we have identifed posttranscriptional repression of interferon-γ (Ifng) mRNA as a mechanism to limit Tfh cell formation. By using the(More)
Accumulation of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and proinflammatory cytokines drive autoantibody-mediated diseases. The RNA-binding protein Roquin-1 (Rc3h1) represses the inducible costimulator ICOS and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in T cells to prevent Tfh cell accumulation. Unlike Rc3h1(san) mice with a mutation in the ROQ domain of Roquin-1, mice lacking the(More)
Myelin reactive T cells are central in the development of the autoimmune response leading to CNS destruction in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). Investigations on the mechanisms underlying the activation and expansion of myelin reactive T have stressed the importance of non-autoimmune conditions impinging the(More)
We used a comprehensive collection of Affymetrix microarray datasets to ascertain which genes or molecules distinguish the known major subsets of human T cells. Our strategy allowed us to identify the genes expressed in most T cell subsets: TCR alphabeta+ and gammadelta+, three effector subsets (Th1, Th2, and T follicular helper cells), T central memory, T(More)
The final common pathway in diabetes development is beta cell apoptosis. We herein describe a novel diabetes model based on transgenic NOD.k iHEL mice, wherein male mice develop diabetes due to nonimmune-mediated beta cell death. Histology and electron microscopy confirm endoplasmic reticulum (ER) abnormalities that are consistent with endoplasmic stress(More)
There has been a recent resurgence of interest into new and improved vaccine adjuvants. This interest has been stimulated by the need for new vaccines to combat problematic pathogens such as SARS and HIV, and to counter potential bioterrorist attacks. A major bottleneck in vaccine development is the low immunogenicity of purified subunit or recombinant(More)