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Nicotine is a very widely used drug of abuse, which exerts a number of neurovegetative, behavioural and psychological effects by interacting with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (NAChRs). These receptors are distributed widely in human brain and ganglia, and form a family of ACh-gated ion channels of different subtypes, each of which has a(More)
The distribution of nicotinic receptors in the brain and ganglia of the Cynomolgus monkey was studied by in situ hybridization and receptor autoradiography. A 35S-labeled antisense riboprobe for the mRNA of the alpha 3 subunit of the human nicotinic receptor, [3H]L-nicotine and [125]alpha-bungarotoxin were used as markers. The highest levels of alpha 3-mRNA(More)
The mechanisms involved in the development of chronic pain are varied and complex. Pain processes are plastic and unrelieved pain may lead to changes in the neural structure involved in pain generation. Nociceptive pain announces the presence of a potentially damaging stimulus that occurs when noxious stimuli activate primary afferent neurons. Neuropathic(More)
PHOX2A is a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor that participates in specifying the autonomic nervous system. It is also involved in the transcriptional control of the noradrenergic neurotransmitter phenotype as it regulates the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. The results of this study show that the human(More)
Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is involved in different neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Consistently, SNAP-25 polymorphisms in humans are associated with hyperactivity and/or with low cognitive scores. We analysed five SNAP-25 gene polymorphisms (rs363050, rs363039,(More)
BACKGROUND Neuroblastoma (NB) is a severe pediatric tumor originating from neural crest derivatives and accounting for 15% of childhood cancer mortality. The heterogeneous and complex genetic etiology has been confirmed with the identification of mutations in two genes, encoding for the receptor tyrosine kinase Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) and the(More)
Ghrelin is a hormone with a crucial role in the regulation of appetite, regulation of inflammation, glucose metabolism and cell proliferation. In the brain ghrelin neurons are located in the cortex (sensorimotor area, cingular gyrus), and the fibres of ghrelin neurons in hypothalamus project directly to the dorsal vagal complex (DVC). Ghrelin binds the(More)
The human alpha5 nicotinic receptor subunit gene appears to be expressed in several structures of the nervous system, but also in a number of non-neuronal tissues, with maximal expressions occurring in the entire gastrointestinal tract, thymus and testis. To understand whether specific transcriptional mechanisms are involved in the tissue-specific(More)
Chronic pain is a debilitating condition that is associated with many common diseases; this places a major burden on the healthcare system. There are currently numerous analgesic agents available for the treatment of chronic pain. In general, the oral non-opioid analgesic, paracetamol, is recommended for the initial treatment of mild to moderate pain.(More)