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Our perception of the environment relies on the capacity of neural networks to adapt rapidly to changes in incoming stimuli. It is increasingly being realized that the neural code is adaptive, that is, sensory neurons change their responses and selectivity in a dynamic manner to match the changes in input stimuli. Understanding how rapid exposure, or(More)
Cortical-feedback projections to primary sensory areas terminate most heavily in layer 1 (L1) of the neocortex, where they make synapses with tuft dendrites of pyramidal neurons. L1 input is thought to provide ‘contextual’ information, but the signals transmitted by L1 feedback remain uncharacterized. In the rodent somatosensory system, the spatially(More)
It is generally believed that attention enhances the processing of sensory information during perception and learning. Here we report that, contrary to common belief, attention limits the degree of plasticity induced by repeated exposure to image features. Specifically, daily exposure to oriented stimuli that are not linked to a specific task causes an(More)
Determining how long-range synaptic inputs engage pyramidal neurons in primary motor cortex (M1) is important for understanding circuit mechanisms involved in regulating movement. We used channelrhodopsin-2-assisted circuit mapping to characterize the long-range excitatory synaptic connections made by multiple cortical and thalamic areas onto pyramidal(More)
Experimental advances allowing for the simultaneous recording of activity at multiple sites have significantly increased our understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns in neural activity. The impact of such patterns on neural coding is a fundamental question in neuroscience. The simulation of spike trains with predetermined activity patterns is therefore(More)
Artificial intelligence researchers have been attracted by the idea of having robots learn how to accomplish a task, rather than being told explicitly. Reinforcement learning has been proposed as an appealing framework to be used in controlling mobile agents. Robot learning research, as well as research in biological systems, face many similar problems in(More)
Cortical spike trains often appear noisy, with the timing and number of spikes varying across repetitions of stimuli. Spiking variability can arise from internal (behavioral state, unreliable neurons, or chaotic dynamics in neural circuits) and external (uncontrolled behavior or sensory stimuli) sources. The amount of irreducible internal noise in spike(More)
The prisoner's dilemma (PD) is the leading metaphor for the evolution of cooperative behavior in populations of selfish agents. Although cooperation in the iterated prisoner's dilemma (IPD) has been studied for over twenty years, most of this research has been focused on strategies that involve nonlearned behavior. Another approach is to suppose that(More)