Diederik F. S. Kehrer

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The active metabolite of irinotecan (CPT-11), 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), is either formed through enzymatic cleavage of CPT-11 by carboxyl esterases (CEs) or through cytochrome P-450 3A-mediated oxidation to 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-amino] carbonyloxycamptothecin (NPC) and a subsequent conversion by CE. In the liver, SN-38 is(More)
PURPOSE Irinotecan (CPT-11) is a prodrug of SN-38 and has been registered for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. It is converted by the cytochrome P450 3A4 isozyme (CYP3A4) into several inactive metabolites, including 7-ethyl-10-[4-N-(5-aminopentanoic acid)-1-piperidino]-carbonyloxycamptothecin (APC). To investigate the role of CYP3A4 in(More)
The topoisomerase I inhibitors reviewed in this paper are all semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin (CPT). Modulation of this intranuclear enzyme translates clinically in to antitumor activity against a broad spectrum of tumors and is therefore the subject of numerous investigations. We present preclinical and clinical data on CPT analogs that are already(More)
OBJECTIVE Delayed-type diarrhea is a common side effect of irinotecan and is associated with a bacterial-mediated formation of the active irinotecan metabolite SN-38 from its glucuronide conjugate in the intestine. Based on a pilot study, we hypothesized that concomitant administration of the antibiotic neomycin would diminish exposure of the gut to SN-38(More)
A high-performance liquid chromatographic assay with UV detection has been developed for the determination of ketoconazole in human plasma. Quantitative extraction was achieved by a single solvent extraction involving a mixture of acetonitrile-n-butyl chloride (1:4, v/v). Ketoconazole and the internal standard (clotrimazole) were separated on a column(More)
This study was designed to evaluate irinotecan (CPT-11) disposition and pharmacodynamics in the presence and absence of the broad-spectrum antibiotic neomycin. Seven evaluable cancer patients experiencing diarrhea graded > or =2 after receiving CPT-11 alone (350 mg/m(2) i.v. once every 3 weeks) received the same dose combined with oral neomycin at 1000 mg(More)
This study was designed to evaluate irinotecan (CPT11) disposition and pharmacodynamics in the presence and absence of the broad-spectrum antibiotic neomycin. Seven evaluable cancer patients experiencing diarrhea graded >2 after receiving CPT-11 alone (350 mg/m i.v. once every 3 weeks) received the same dose combined with oral neomycin at 1000 mg three(More)
The aims of this study were to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity profile, and pharmacokinetics of irinotecan given with oral R115777 (tipifarnib), a farnesyl protein transferase inhibitor. Patients were treated with escalating doses of irinotecan with interval-modulated dosing of R115777 (continuously or on days 1–14, and repeated every(More)
PURPOSE To determine the maximum-tolerated and recommended dose, toxicity profile, and pharmacokinetics of the liposomal topoisomerase I inhibitor lurtotecan (NX 211) administered as a 30-minute intravenous infusion once every 3 weeks in cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS NX 211 was administered by peripheral infusion. Dose escalation decisions were(More)
BACKGROUND A circulating tumor cell (CTC) count is an established prognostic factor in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Besides enumeration, CTC characterization promises to improve outcome prediction and treatment guidance. Having shown the feasibility of quantifying clinically relevant mRNA transcripts in CTCs, we determined the prognostic value of CTC(More)