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BACKGROUND In patients with type 2 diabetes, the effects of intensive glucose control on vascular outcomes remain uncertain. METHODS We randomly assigned 11,140 patients with type 2 diabetes to undergo either standard glucose control or intensive glucose control, defined as the use of gliclazide (modified release) plus other drugs as required to achieve a(More)
Elevated blood pressure is a common, heritable cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide. To date, identification of common genetic variants influencing blood pressure has proven challenging. We tested 2.5 million genotyped and imputed SNPs for association with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 34,433 subjects of European ancestry from the Global(More)
We assessed the prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) in a general elderly population in the Netherlands. The study formed part of the Rotterdam Study, a population-based door-to-door study, and included 6,969 persons 55 years of age or older living in a suburb of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. All participants were examined, and those who either had at least(More)
In the present study, we investigated whether the negative feedback action of glucocorticoids (GCs) on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis changes with age. We performed a 1-mg dexamethasone (DEX) suppression test in 216 healthy elderly individuals. To investigate individual variability of feedback sensitivity in more detail, 2.5 yr later a 0.25-mg(More)
BACKGROUND Second-generation antipsychotic drugs were introduced over a decade ago for the treatment of schizophrenia; however, their purported clinical effectiveness compared with first-generation antipsychotic drugs is still debated. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of second-generation antipsychotic drugs with that of a low dose of haloperidol, in(More)
Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or  ≥90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This(More)
Background—For the general population, the clinical relevance of an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is still debated. Therefore, we examined the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and all-cause mortality and mortality caused by cardiovascular (CV) disease and non-CV disease in the general population. 28 and 75 years (nϭ85 421) were sent(More)
In randomized controlled trials as well as in observational studies, researchers are often interested in effects of treatment or exposure in different subgroups, i.e. effect modification [1, 2]. There are several methods to assess effect modification and the debate on which method is best is still ongoing [2–5]. In this article we focus on an invalid method(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular disorders have been implicated in dementia, but whether atherosclerosis is related to the most frequent type of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, is not known. The apolipoprotein-E genotype has been associated with Alzheimer's disease, and we postulate that it plays a part, together with atherosclerosis, in the aetiology of Alzheimer's(More)
BACKGROUND High plasma HDL cholesterol is associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction, but whether this association is causal is unclear. Exploiting the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at meiosis, are independent of non-genetic confounding, and are unmodified by disease processes, mendelian randomisation can be used to test the(More)