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Molecular motors play critical roles in the formation of mitotic spindles, either through controlling the stability of individual microtubules, or by crosslinking and sliding microtubule arrays. Kinesin-8 motors are best known for their regulatory roles in controlling microtubule dynamics. They contain microtubule-destabilizing activities, and restrict(More)
Microtubules (MTs) are dynamic cytoskeletal elements involved in numerous cellular processes. Although they are highly rigid polymers with a persistence length of 1-8 mm, they may exhibit a curved shape at a scale of few micrometers within cells, depending on their biological functions. However, how MT flexural rigidity in cells is regulated remains poorly(More)
The spatial organization of the microtubule (MT) network directs cell polarity and mitosis. It is finely regulated by hundreds of different types of microtubule-associated proteins and molecular motors whose specific functions are difficult to investigate directly in cells. Here, we have investigated their functions using geometrically controlled MT(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyse the transmigration of immune cells infected by HIV-1 across the epithelial monolayer using the endometrial human endometrial carcinoma (HEC)-1A cell line and to study the influence of seminal plasma in this process. DESIGN After sexual intercourse involving a male partner infected by HIV-1, a selection process has been shown to lead(More)
Signaling receptors dynamically exit cilia upon activation of signaling pathways such as Hedgehog. Here, we find that when activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) fail to undergo BBSome-mediated retrieval from cilia back into the cell, these GPCRs concentrate into membranous buds at the tips of cilia before release into extracellular vesicles named(More)
Microtubules (MTs) are highly dynamical structures that play a crucial role in cell physiology. In cooperation with microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), MTs form bundles endowing cells with specific mechanisms to control their shape or generate forces. Whether the dynamics of MTs is affected by the lateral connections that MAPs make between MTs during(More)
Eukaryotic cells rely on long-lived microtubules for intracellular transport and as compression-bearing elements. We considered that long-lived microtubules are acetylated inside their lumen and that microtubule acetylation may modify microtubule mechanics. Here, we found that tubulin acetylation is required for the mechanical stabilization of long-lived(More)
Long-lived microtubules endow the eukaryotic cell with long-range transport abilities. While long-lived microtubules are acetylated on Lys40 of α-tubulin (αK40), acetylation takes place after stabilization and does not protect against depolymerization. Instead, αK40 acetylation has been proposed to mechanically stabilize microtubules. Yet how modification(More)
The following protocol describes a method to control the orientation and polarity of polymerizing microtubules (MTs). Reconstitution of specific geometries of dynamic MT networks is achieved using a ultraviolet (UV) micropatterning technique in combination with stabilized MT microseeds. The process is described in three main parts. First, the surface is(More)
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