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Gaining new insights into the anatomy of the human hypothalamus is crucial for the development of new treatment strategies involving functional stereotactic neurosurgery. Here, using anatomical comparisons between histology and magnetic resonance images of the human hypothalamus in the coronal plane, we show that discrete gray and white hypothalamic(More)
The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition, the pathophysiology of which appears to be both multifactorial and polygenic. The definition of the syndrome has been much debated. Key features include menstrual cycle disturbance, hyperandrogenism and obesity. There are many extra-ovarian aspects to the pathophysiology of PCOS, yet ovarian(More)
CONTEXT Despite its frequency, the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still a difficult diagnosis in endocrinology, gynecology, and reproductive medicine. To help solve this issue, the Rotterdam consensus conference proposed to include the ultrasonographic follicle count as a new diagnostic criterion, in addition to hyperandrogenism and oligo-anovulation.(More)
We investigated the effects of an artificial menstrual cycle on brain structure and activity in young women using metabolic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We show that the activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis during the pill-free interval of low-dose combined oral contraceptive use is associated with transient microstructural and(More)
BACKGROUND Identification of new markers assessing endometrial receptivity may help in improving the clinical outcome of IVF. This study aimed at identifying genes expressed in human endometrium during the implantation window that could be used as such markers. METHODS A series of normoresponder patients (n = 31) underwent endometrial biopsies (n = 62, 2(More)
This review exposes the follicular abnormalities responsible for anovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The putative pathophysiological explanations involve the principal intra- and extra-ovarian regulators which intervene during normal folliculogenesis to control the initial recruitment and growth and then the cyclic recruitment. We propose the(More)
Bromocriptine or other dopamine agonists are usually effective for the treatment of prolactin-secreting adenomas. Five to 18% of prolactinomas, however, do not respond to such therapy. We have shown previously that such resistance to bromocriptine correlates with reduced binding to the D2 receptor subtype of dopamine, the major PRL inhibiting factor. In the(More)
Kallmann syndrome (KS) associates congenital hypogonadism due to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency and anosmia. The genetics of KS involves various modes of transmission, including oligogenic inheritance. Here, we report that Nrp1(sema/sema) mutant mice that lack a functional semaphorin-binding domain in neuropilin-1, an obligatory coreceptor(More)
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays crucial roles in sexual differentiation and gonadal functions. However, the possible extragonadal effects of AMH on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis remain unexplored. Here we demonstrate that a significant subset of GnRH neurons both in mice and humans express the AMH receptor, and that AMH potently activates the(More)