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The serum level of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), a product from granulosa cells involved in follicle growth, has been shown to correlate tightly with the small antral follicle number (FN) at ultrasonography (U/S) in women who do not have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Because PCOS is associated with a 2- to 3-fold increase in growing FN, we investigated(More)
OBJECTIVE To review all available data and recommend a definition for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) based on published peer-reviewed data, whether already in use or not, to guide clinical diagnosis and future research. DESIGN Literature review and expert consensus. SETTING Professional society. PATIENTS None. INTERVENTION(S) None. MAIN OUTCOME(More)
The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition, the pathophysiology of which appears to be both multifactorial and polygenic. The definition of the syndrome has been much debated. Key features include menstrual cycle disturbance, hyperandrogenism and obesity. There are many extra-ovarian aspects to the pathophysiology of PCOS, yet ovarian(More)
OBJECTIVE The Androgen Excess Society (AES) charged a task force to review all available data and recommend an evidence-based definition for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), whether already in use or not, to guide clinical diagnosis and future research. PARTICIPANTS Participants included expert investigators in the field. EVIDENCE Based on a systematic(More)
BACKGROUND Polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) at ultrasound is currently used in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We hypothesized that the previously proposed threshold value of 12 as an excessive number of follicles per ovary (FN) is no longer appropriate because of current technological developments. In this study, we have revisited(More)
BACKGROUND This study revisited the ultrasonographic diagnostic criteria of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and studied the relationship between the major hormonal and metabolic features of PCOS and the follicle number per ovary (FNPO). METHODS This prospective study included 214 women with PCOS compared with 112 women with normal ovaries. Main clinical,(More)
OBJECTIVES By requiring a minimum of two of three items [hyperandrogenism (HA), oligoanovulation (OA), and polycystic ovaries (PCO) at ultrasound], the Rotterdam definition recognizes four PCO syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes: HA+OA+PCO (full-blown syndrome), HA+OA (former National Institutes of Health definition), HA+PCO (ovulatory PCOS), and OA+PCO. However,(More)
Gaining new insights into the anatomy of the human hypothalamus is crucial for the development of new treatment strategies involving functional stereotactic neurosurgery. Here, using anatomical comparisons between histology and magnetic resonance images of the human hypothalamus in the coronal plane, we show that discrete gray and white hypothalamic(More)
OBJECTIVE To extend our previous findings on the diagnostic validity of ovarian stroma hypertrophy in women with hyperandrogenic and/or menstrual disorders. DESIGN Transvaginal ultrasonography was performed in 69 patients complaining of hyperandrogenism and/or menstrual disorders and in 48 normal ovulatory women in early follicular phase. To check the(More)
CONTEXT Despite its frequency, the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still a difficult diagnosis in endocrinology, gynecology, and reproductive medicine. To help solve this issue, the Rotterdam consensus conference proposed to include the ultrasonographic follicle count as a new diagnostic criterion, in addition to hyperandrogenism and oligo-anovulation.(More)