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We have identified a gene encoding an antigen recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes on the autologous tumor cells of a melanoma patient, AVL3. The gene shows homologies with members of the HERV-K family of human endogenous retroviruses, and it was provisionally named HERV-K-MEL. It contains many mutations that disrupt the open reading frames coding for all(More)
We have analyzed the T cell responses of HLA-A1 metastatic melanoma patients with detectable disease, following vaccination with a recombinant ALVAC virus, which bears short MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 sequences coding for antigenic peptides presented by HLA-A1. To evaluate the anti-MAGE CTL responses, we resorted to antigenic stimulation of blood lymphocytes under(More)
We have identified an antigen recognized by autologous CTL on the lung carcinoma cells of a patient who enjoyed a favorable clinical evolution, being alive 10 years after partial resection of the primary tumor. The antigenic peptide is presented by HLA-A2 molecules and encoded by a mutated sequence in the gene coding for malic enzyme, an essential enzyme(More)
Melanoma patients were injected with various vaccines containing a MAGE-A3 peptide presented by HLA-DP4. Anti-MAGE-A3.DP4 T cells were not detectable in the blood before vaccination, but their frequencies after vaccination ranged from 2 x 10(-6) to 2 x 10(-3) among the CD4(+) blood T lymphocytes of the patients. The CD4(+) blood T lymphocytes that stained(More)
PURPOSE A critical factor determining the effectiveness of currently used dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines is the DC activation or maturation status. We have recently shown that the T-cell stimulatory capacity of DCs pulsed with tumor-antigen-derived peptides can be considerably increased by activating the DCs through electroporation with mRNA encoding(More)
Tumor-specific Ags are potential target molecules in the therapeutic treatment of cancer. One way to elicit potent immune responses against these Ags is to use recombinant viruses, which activate both the innate and the adaptive arms of the immune system. In this study, we have compared Semliki Forest virus (SFV), adenovirus, and ALVAC (poxvirus) vectors(More)
Most antigenic peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are produced by the proteasome. Here we show that a proteasome-independent peptide derived from the human tumor protein MAGE-A3 is produced directly by insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), a cytosolic metallopeptidase. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte recognition of tumor cells(More)
We recently described two proteasome subtypes that are intermediate between the standard proteasome and the immunoproteasome. They contain only one (β5i) or two (β1i and β5i) of the three inducible catalytic subunits of the immunoproteasome. They are present in tumor cells and abundant in normal human tissues. We described two tumor antigenic peptides that(More)
Central tolerance toward tissue-restricted Ags is considered to rely on ectopic expression in the thymus, which was also observed for tumor Ags encoded by cancer-germline genes. It is unknown whether endogenous expression shapes the T cell repertoire against the latter Ags and explains their weak immunogenicity. We addressed this question using mouse(More)
We immunized mice with antigenic peptide P815E, which is presented by H-2K(d) and recognized by tumor-specific CTL raised against P815 tumor cells. This peptide is encoded by the ubiquitously expressed gene MsrA and carries a mutated residue conferring tumor specificity. Unexpectedly, we observed a severe toxicity occurring in the early hours after the(More)