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Intra-annual radial growth variations of two Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) were monitored over 4 years, at four heights up the stem, by means of point-dendrometers. The trees were then felled and radial wood samples were cut from the radii that had been monitored by the dendrometers and analyzed for density. From the radial growth(More)
This study aims to link three-dimensional coarse root architecture to tree stability in mature timber trees with an average of 1-m rooting depth. Undamaged and uprooted trees were sampled in a stand damaged by a storm. Root architecture was measured by three-dimensional (3-D) digitizing. The distribution of root volume by root type and in wind-oriented(More)
The carbon and oxygen stable isotope composition of wood cellulose (delta(13)C(cellulose) and delta(18)O(cellulose), respectively) reveal well-defined seasonal variations that contain valuable records of past climate, leaf gas exchange and carbon allocation dynamics within the trees. Here, we present a single-substrate model for wood growth to interpret(More)
In this paper, we present a method and a tool to build symbolic labelled transition systems from B specifications. The tool, called GeneSyst, can take into account refinement levels and can visualize the decomposition of abstract states in concrete hierarchical states. The resulting symbolic transition system represents all the behaviors of the initial B(More)
This paper gives a brief description of the recent improvements of lpg, a programming language that integrates algebraic and logic programming paradigms. In this language, functions are deened by means of constructor-based conditional term rewriting systems and predicates are deened by means of Horn clauses where the bodies may contain classical literals as(More)
This paper presents the results of the RNTL BOM project, which aimed to develop an approach to generate efficient code from B formal developments. The target domain is smart card applications, in which memory and code size is an important factor. The results detailed in this paper are a new architecture of the translation process, a way to adapt the B0(More)