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Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants which exert a variety of toxic effects in animals, including disturbances of sexual development and reproductive function. The estrogenic effects of PCBs may be mediated in part by hydroxylated PCB metabolites (PCB-OHs), but the mechanisms by which they are brought about are not(More)
BACKGROUND Despite an increasing awareness regarding pain management in neonates and the availability of published guidelines for the treatment of procedural pain, preterm neonates experience pain leading to short- and long-term detrimental effects. OBJECTIVE To assess the frequency of use of analgesics in invasive procedures in neonates and the(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the value of antenatally determined observed to expected fetal lung area to head circumference ratio (LHR) in the prediction of postnatal survival in isolated, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). METHODS Two groups of fetuses were examined. The first group included 650 normal fetuses at 12-32 weeks' gestation, and the data collected(More)
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with high mortality and morbidity. To date, there are no standardized protocols for the treatment of infants with this anomaly. However, protocols based on the literature and expert opinion might improve outcome. This paper is a consensus statement from the CDH EURO Consortium prepared with the aim of(More)
AIM To investigate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single dose propacetamol in preterm and term infants on the first day of life. METHODS Neonates were stratified by gestational age. Preterm (< 37 weeks) and term (37-41 weeks) infants received a single dose of propacetamol in the first 24 hours of life when they had minor, painful procedures(More)
The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the COMFORT scale as a postoperative pain instrument for children aged 0-3 years. Subjects were 158 neonates and toddlers after major abdominal or thoracic surgery. Trained nurses rated the children's pain at 3, 6 and 9 h postoperative on the Pediatric Surgical Intensive Care Unit using the(More)
Does pain or tissue damage in early life lead to hyperalgesia persisting into childhood? We performed a cross-sectional study in 164 infants to investigate whether major surgery within the first 3 months of life increases pain sensitivity to subsequent surgery and to elucidate whether subsequent surgery in the same dermatome or in a different dermatome(More)
OBJECTIVES A retrospective analysis of the prognostic significance of the lung-to-head ratio (LHR) and other prenatal parameters on the outcome of fetuses with left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). METHODS A total of 26 fetuses with isolated left CDH without chromosomal abnormalities were included. Twenty-one LHR measurements could(More)
BACKGROUND Descriptions of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of morphine and its metabolites in young children are scant. Previous studies have not differentiated the effects of size from those related to age during infancy. METHODS Postoperative children 0-3 yr old were given an intravenous loading dose of morphine hydrochloride (100 micro g kg(-1) in(More)
Recurrent microdeletions of 8p23.1 that include GATA4 and SOX7 confer a high risk of both congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and cardiac defects. Although GATA4-deficient mice have both CDH and cardiac defects, no humans with cardiac defects attributed to GATA4 mutations have been reported to have CDH. We were also unable to identify deleterious GATA4(More)