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Working memory (WM) is the ability to keep a limited amount of information "on line" for immediate use during short intervals. Verbal WM has been hypothesized to consist of neuroanatomically segregated components, i.e., maintenance (storage, rehearsal, and matching) and manipulation (reordering or updating), corresponding to ventrolateral and dorsolateral(More)
Identifying genetic variants influencing human brain structures may reveal new biological mechanisms underlying cognition and neuropsychiatric illness. The volume of the hippocampus is a biomarker of incipient Alzheimer's disease and is reduced in schizophrenia, major depression and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Whereas many brain imaging phenotypes are(More)
In the present study, we sought to investigate which brain structures are recruited in planning tasks of increasing complexity. For this purpose, a parametric self-paced pseudo-randomized event-related functional MRI version of the Tower of London task was designed. We tested 22 healthy subjects, enabling assessment of imaging results at a second (random(More)
CONTEXT The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)-striatal circuit, which is important for motivational behavior, is assumed to be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) according to current neurobiological models of this disorder. However, the engagement of this neural loop in OCD has not been tested directly in a cognitive activation(More)
Reversal learning may conceptually be dissected into acquiring stimulus-reinforcement associations and subsequently altering behavior by switching to new associations as stimulus-reinforcement contingencies reverse (i.e., affective switching). Previous imaging studies have found regions of the ventrolateral and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) to be involved in(More)
We used high-resolution fMRI to investigate claims that learning to read results in greater left occipito-temporal (OT) activation for written words relative to pictures of objects. In the first experiment, 9/16 subjects performing a one-back task showed activation in > or =1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures (P < 0.05 uncorrected). In a second(More)
During the first 6-7 years of life children undergo a period of major neurocognitive development. Higher-order cognitive functions such as executive control of attention, encoding and retrieving of stored information and goal-directed behavior are present but less developed compared to older individuals. There is only very limited information from(More)
Chemotherapy is associated with cognitive impairment in a subgroup of breast cancer survivors, but the neural circuitry underlying this side effect is largely unknown. Moreover, long-term impairment has not been studied well. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychological testing were performed in breast cancer(More)
In this functional MRI (fMRI) study, we investigated ageing effects on motor skill learning. We applied an adapted version of the serial reaction time (SRT) task to extensive groups of young (N=26) and elderly (N=40) subjects. Since indications have been provided for age-related shrinkage of brain regions assumed to be critical to motor skill learning, we(More)
The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging(More)