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Repeated episodes of ischemia followed by reperfusion, commonly referred to as ischemic preconditioning (IPC), represent an endogenous protective mechanism that delays cell injury. IPC also increases blood flow and improves endothelial function. We hypothesize that IPC will improve physical exercise performance and maximal oxygen consumption. The purpose of(More)
Although episodic changes in shear stress have been proposed as the mechanism responsible for the effects of exercise training on the vasculature, this hypothesis has not been directly addressed in humans. We examined brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, an index of NO-mediated endothelial function, in healthy men in response to an acute bout of handgrip(More)
Shear stress is an important stimulus to arterial adaptation in response to exercise and training in humans. We recently observed significant reverse arterial flow and shear during exercise and different antegrade/retrograde patterns of shear and flow in response to different types of exercise. The purpose of this study was to simultaneously examine(More)
The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function and structure in humans. Physical deconditioning is(More)
Viewpoint Left ventricular torsion: feeling the heat (pages 71–72) Excitatory amino acid receptors in the dorsomedial hypothalamus are involved in the cardiovascular and behavioural chemoreflex responses (pages 73–84) Maturation-related changes in the pattern of renal sympathetic nerve activity from fetal life to adulthood (pages 85–93) Angiotensin AT1(More)
UNLABELLED Advanced age is associated with a decreased leg blood flow and reduced physical activity. Endothelin (ET-1), a powerful vasoconstrictor, may play a role in the increased leg vascular tone in older men. objectives: to assess the ET-1-mediated vascular tone in the legs of healthy sedentary older men, both before and after 8 wk of exercise training.(More)
OBJECTIVE Spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals demonstrate an increased baseline leg vascular resistance (LVR). In addition, despite the lack of sympathetic control, an increase in LVR is observed during orthostatic challenges. On the basis of the vasoconstrictive characteristics of angiotensin II, we examined the hypothesis that angiotensin II contributes(More)
Flow-mediated dilatation (%FMD), an index of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilator function, is regarded as a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease. Aging is associated with endothelial dysfunction, but underlying sex-related differences may exist and the effects of fitness and exercise on endothelial dysfunction in men (M) and women (W) are poorly(More)
Atherosclerosis is a lifelong process involving artery wall thickening. Increased wall thickness has been widely adopted as a preclinical surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. A prerequisite for such a surrogate marker is that it is a structural characteristic of the vessel wall that is not subject to acute changes. The purpose of this study was to examine(More)
Individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI), especially with tetraplegia, experience poor sleep quality, and this may be related to impaired control of circadian rhythmicity. Here, we examined the evening onset of melatonin secretion, an important hormone for the initiation of sleep, in people with a complete cervical (tetraplegia) and thoracic (paraplegia)(More)