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Changes in arterial shear stress induce functional and structural vasculature adaptations. Recent studies indicate that substantial retrograde flow and shear can occur through human conduit arteries. In animals, retrograde shear is associated with atherogenic effects. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of incremental levels of retrograde shear(More)
Repeated episodes of ischemia followed by reperfusion, commonly referred to as ischemic preconditioning (IPC), represent an endogenous protective mechanism that delays cell injury. IPC also increases blood flow and improves endothelial function. We hypothesize that IPC will improve physical exercise performance and maximal oxygen consumption. The purpose of(More)
Although episodic changes in shear stress have been proposed as the mechanism responsible for the effects of exercise training on the vasculature, this hypothesis has not been directly addressed in humans. We examined brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, an index of NO-mediated endothelial function, in healthy men in response to an acute bout of handgrip(More)
PURPOSE Repeated bouts of ischemia followed by reperfusion (i.e., ischemic preconditioning (IPC)) protect against damage after a myocardial infarction. Recent observational data indicate that IPC improves exercise performance. However, no previous study has examined potential underlying mechanisms for this effect of IPC. Therefore, we examined the potential(More)
Studies of the impact of exercise training on arterial adaptation in healthy subjects have produced disparate results. It is possible that some studies failed to detect changes because functional and structural adaptations follow a different time course and may therefore not be detected at discrete time points. To gain insight into the time course of(More)
Flow-mediated dilatation (%FMD), an index of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilator function, is regarded as a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease. Aging is associated with endothelial dysfunction, but underlying sex-related differences may exist and the effects of fitness and exercise on endothelial dysfunction in men (M) and women (W) are poorly(More)
Dick H. J. Thijssen, Mark A. Black, Kyra E. Pyke, Jaume Padilla, Greg Atkinson, Ryan A. Harris, Beth Parker, Michael E. Widlansky, Michael E. Tschakovsky, and Daniel J. Green Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool; Department of Physiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The(More)
The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function and structure in humans. Physical deconditioning is(More)
AIM Because age-related changes in the large conduit arteries (increased wall thickness, and attenuated arterial compliance and endothelial function) are associated with cardiovascular pathology, prevention is of paramount importance. The effects of endurance training (i.e. walking or cycling) in older humans are assessed in cross-sectional studies,(More)
Lower limb exercise increases upper limb conduit artery blood flow and shear stress, and leg exercise training can enhance upper limb vascular function. We therefore examined the contribution of shear stress to changes in vascular function in the nonexercising upper limbs in response to lower limb cycling exercise training. Initially, five male subjects(More)