Dianne S. Schwarz

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A key step in RNA interference (RNAi) is assembly of the RISC, the protein-siRNA complex that mediates target RNA cleavage. Here, we show that the two strands of an siRNA duplex are not equally eligible for assembly into RISC. Rather, both the absolute and relative stabilities of the base pairs at the 5' ends of the two siRNA strands determine the degree to(More)
The putative RNA helicase, Armitage (Armi), is required to repress oskar translation in Drosophila oocytes; armi mutant females are sterile and armi mutations disrupt anteroposterior and dorsoventral patterning. Here, we show that armi is required for RNAi. armi mutant male germ cells fail to silence Stellate, a gene regulated endogenously by RNAi, and(More)
In Drosophila, two features of small interfering RNA (siRNA) structure--5' phosphates and 3' hydroxyls--are reported to be essential for RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we show that as in Drosophila, a 5' phosphate is required for siRNA function in human HeLa cells. In contrast, we find no evidence in flies or humans for a role in RNAi for the siRNA 3'(More)
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), the guides that direct RNA interference (RNAi), provide a powerful tool to reduce the expression of a single gene in human cells. Ideally, dominant, gain-of-function human diseases could be treated using siRNAs that specifically silence the mutant disease allele, while leaving expression of the wild-type allele unperturbed.(More)
In the Drosophila and mammalian RNA interference (RNAi) pathways, target RNA destruction is catalyzed by the siRNA-guided, RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). RISC has been proposed to be an siRNA-directed endonuclease, catalyzing cleavage of a single phosphodiester bond on the RNA target. Although 5' cleavage products are readily detected for RNAi in(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) can achieve sequence-selective inactivation of gene expression in a wide variety of eukaryotes by introducing double-stranded RNA corresponding to the target gene. Here we explore the potential of RNAi as a therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by mutations in the Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene. Although the(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, dynamic structure that serves many roles in the cell including calcium storage, protein synthesis and lipid metabolism. The diverse functions of the ER are performed by distinct domains; consisting of tubules, sheets and the nuclear envelope. Several proteins that contribute to the overall architecture and dynamics(More)
mRNA sequencing (mRNA-seq) is a commonly used technique to survey gene expression from organisms with fully sequenced genomes. Successful mRNA-seq requires purification of mRNA away from the much more abundant ribosomal RNA, which is typically accomplished by oligo-dT selection. However, mRNAs with short poly-A tails are captured poorly by oligo-dT based(More)
How cells shape and remodel organelles in response to cellular signals is a poorly understood process. Using Xenopus laevis egg extract, we found that increases in cytosolic calcium lead to the activation of an endogenous ribonuclease, XendoU. A fraction of XendoU localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is required for nuclear envelope assembly and(More)