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The rise of atmospheric O(2) was a milestone in the history of life. Although O(2) itself is not a climate-active gas, its appearance would have removed a methane greenhouse present on the early Earth and potentially led to dramatic cooling. Moreover, by fundamentally altering the biogeochemical cycles of C, N, S and Fe, its rise first in the atmosphere and(More)
For more than a decade, it has been recognized that arsenate [H2AsO41-; As(V)] can be used by microorganisms as a terminal electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration. Given the toxicity of arsenic, the mechanistic basis of this process is intriguing, as is its evolutionary origin. Here we show that a two-gene cluster (arrAB; arsenate respiratory reduction)(More)
Magnetosomes are membranous bacterial organelles sharing many features of eukaryotic organelles. Using electron cryotomography, we found that magnetosomes are invaginations of the cell membrane flanked by a network of cytoskeletal filaments. The filaments appeared to be composed of MamK, a homolog of the bacterial actin-like protein MreB, which formed(More)
Shewanella species are renowned for their respiratory versatility, including their ability to respire poorly soluble substrates by using enzymatic machinery that is localized to the outside of the cell. The ability to engage in "extracellular respiration" to date has focused primarily on respiration of minerals. Here, we identify two gene clusters in(More)
Understanding the mechanisms of anaerobic microbial iron cycling is necessary for a full appreciation of present-day biogeochemical cycling of iron and carbon and for drawing conclusions about these cycles on the ancient Earth. Towards that end, we isolated and characterized an anaerobic nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium from a freshwater(More)
We developed a new method to measure iron reduction at a distance based on depositing Fe(III) (hydr)oxide within nanoporous glass beads. In this "Fe-bead" system, Shewanella oneidensis reduces at least 86.5% of the iron in the absence of direct contact. Biofilm formation accompanies Fe-bead reduction and is observable both macro- and microscopically.(More)
Certain members of the fluorescent pseudomonads produce and secrete phenazines. These heterocyclic, redox-active compounds are toxic to competing organisms, and the cause of these antibiotic effects has been the focus of intense research efforts. It is largely unknown, however, how pseudomonads themselves respond to - and survive in the presence of - these(More)
Sedimentary hopanes are pentacyclic triterpenoids that serve as biomarker proxies for bacteria and certain bacterial metabolisms, such as oxygenic photosynthesis and aerobic methanotrophy. Their parent molecules, the bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs), have been hypothesized to be the bacterial equivalent of sterols. However, the actual function of BHPs in(More)
Phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria couple the oxidation of ferrous iron [Fe(II)] to reductive CO(2) fixation by using light energy, but until recently, little has been understood about the molecular basis for this process. Here we report the discovery, with Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 as a model organism, of a three-gene operon, designated the pio(More)
Results from several laboratories indicate that extracellular electron transfer may be a general mechanism whereby microoorganisms generate energy for cell growth and/or maintenance. Specifically, bacteria can use redox-active organic small molecules, generated outside or inside the cells, to shuttle electrons between reduced and oxidized compounds.(More)