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The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a central regulator of adipogenesis and recruits coactivator proteins in response to ligand. However, the role of another class of nuclear cofactors, the nuclear receptor corepressors, in modulating PPARgamma transcriptional activity is less clear. Such corepressors include the nuclear(More)
The hallmark of sebaceous epithelial cell (sebocyte) differentiation is the accumulation of fused neutral fat droplets. Very little sebocyte differentiation occurs, however, in primary or organ culture, even upon incubating with androgens, which are required for maturation in vivo. We hypothesized that sebocyte cell culture systems lack activators of the(More)
It has been difficult to induce the expected sebocyte differentiation in vitro with dihydrotestosterone (DHT). We reasoned that our culture system lacks differentiating factors, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) were the prime candidates. We tested PPAR activators informative about diverse PPAR subtypes, with and without DHT (10(-6)(More)
Several observations suggest that GH stimulates sebaceous gland growth and development. Therefore, we studied the effects of GH and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), alone and with androgen, on sebaceous epithelial cell (sebocyte) growth and differentiation in vitro. The rat preputial cell culture model system was used to judge differentiation (induction(More)
We have found that sebaceous epithelial cell (sebocyte) differentiation is induced by cognate ligand-agonists of either peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) or retinoid X receptors (RXRs). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that PPAR-RXR cooperation is used in sebocytes as was reported to occur in gene transfection systems and(More)
PPARs are nuclear hormone receptors. PPAR subtypes (alpha, gamma, delta, the latter a xPPARbeta homologue) were initially investigated in skin because of their known role in regulating lipid metabolism. Studies adding specific PPAR ligand activators to cultured skin or skin cells are compatible with the concepts that PPARalpha activation mediates early(More)
The growth and development of pilosebaceous units in their characteristic pattern depends on the interaction of androgens and diverse biologic factors. Stromal-epithelial interactions are essential features. Considerable evidence suggests that androgens stimulate the growth of sensitive pilosebaceous units primarily by acting on specific stromal cells and(More)
Nuclear hormone receptors are of critical importance for skin homeostasis where they modulate cellular metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, cell death, and inflammation. The cutaneous role of the glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen receptors was explored initially. In recent years, sequence homology comparisons have uncovered the complete(More)
Lipoprotein delivery of fatty acids and cholesterol is linked with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activation in adipocytes and macrophages. We postulated that similar interactions exist in sebaceous epithelial cells (sebocytes) in which PPAR activation induces differentiation. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and very low-density(More)