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When we move forward while walking or driving, what we see appears to expand. The center or focus of this expansion tells us our direction of self-motion, or heading, as long as our eyes are still. However, if our eyes move, as when tracking a nearby object on the ground, the retinal image is disrupted and the focus is shifted away from the heading. Neurons(More)
Most neurons in primate visual area MT have a large, modulatory region surrounding their classically defined receptive field, or center. The velocity tuning of this "surround" is generally antagonistic to the center, making it potentially useful for detecting image discontinuities on the basis of differential motion. Because classical MT receptive fields(More)
When we move forward, the visual image on our retina expands. Humans rely on the focus, or center, of this expansion to estimate their direction of heading and, as long as the eyes are still, the retinal focus corresponds to the heading. However, smooth rotation of the eyes adds nearly uniform visual motion to the expanding retinal image and causes a(More)
The ability to perceive the 3-D shape of objects solely from motion cues is referred to as structure-from-motion perception. Recent experiments indicate how this remarkable perceptual attribute is computed by the brains of primates. This computation proceeds in at least two stages, one in which motion measurements are made and another in which moving(More)
Recent experiments are reviewed that indicate that sensory signals from many modalities, as well as efference copy signals from motor structures, converge in the posterior parietal cortex in order to code the spatial locations of goals for movement. These signals are combined using a specific gain mechanism that enables the different coordinate frames of(More)
We see the world as three-dimensional, but because the retinal image is flat, we must derive the third dimension, depth, from two-dimensional cues. Image movement provides one of the most potent cues for depth. For example, the shadow of a contorted wire appears flat when the wire is stationary, but rotating the wire causes motion in the shadow, which(More)
The primate visual system incorporates a highly specialized subsystem for the analysis of motion in the visual field. A key element of this subsystem is the middle temporal (MT) cortical area, which contains a majority of direction-selective neurons. MT neurons are also selective for binocular disparity (depth), which is perplexing given that they are not(More)
Chien and Wexler (1990) reported that children obeyed Principle B of binding theory when the antecedent was a quantifier but not when the antecedent was referential. This was argued by Grodzinsky and Reinhart (1993) to support Reinhart's (1983) theory according to which Principle B affects only bound pronouns. Since then, other studies have supported the(More)
This study investigated the effect of more than two consecutive NPs bearing the nominative case-marker-ga on the processing difficulty associated with Japanese multiply center-embedded sentences. Experiment 1 found that NP-ga sequences are rated substantially less favorably for processability ratings than their matched counterparts; thus, theories that(More)