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Negative correlations between task performance in dynamic control tasks and verbalizable knowledge, as assessed by a post-task questionnaire, have been interpreted as dissociations that indicate two antagonistic modes of learning, one being "explicit", the other "implicit". This paper views the control tasks as finite-state automata and offers an(More)
In this paper, we describe how user-adapted explanations about drug prescriptions can be generated from already existing data sources. We start by illustrating the two-step approach employed in the first version of the natural language generator and the limitations of generated texts, that we discovered through analytical and empirical evaluations. We claim(More)
In this paper we describe how we generated written explanations to 'indirect users' of a knowledge-based system in the domain of drug prescription. We call 'indirect users' the intended recipients of explanations, to distinguish them from the prescriber (the 'direct' user) who interacts with the system. The Explanation Generator was designed after several(More)
Four experiments investigate the hypothesis that irrelevant sound interferes with serial recall of auditory items in the same fashion as with visually presented items. In Experiment 1 an acoustically changing sequence of 30 irrelevant utterances was more disruptive than 30 repetitions of the same utterance (the changing-state effect; Jones, Madden, & Miles,(More)
A field study assessed subjective reports of distraction from various office sounds among 88 employees at two sites. In addition, the study examined the amount of exposure the workers had to the noise in order to determine any evidence for habituation. Finally, respondents were asked how they would improve their environment (with respect to noise), and to(More)
Over the last two decades interest in implicit memory, most notably repetition priming, has grown considerably. During the same period, research has also focused on the mere exposure effect. Although the two areas have developed relatively independently, a number of studies has described the mere exposure effect as an example of implicit memory. Tacit in(More)
Three experiments examined transfer across form (words/pictures) and modality (visual/auditory) in written word, auditory word, and pictorial implicit memory tests, as well as on a free recall task. Experiment I showed no significant transfer across form on any of the three implicit memory tests, and an asymmetric pattern of transfer across modality. In(More)
To make informed decisions about taking medicinal drugs, people need accurate information about side-effects. A European Union guideline now recommends use of qualitative descriptions for five bands of risk, ranging from very rare (affecting <0.01% of the population), to very common (>10%). We did four studies of more than 750 people, whom we asked to(More)