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Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is caused by the constitutively activated tyrosine kinase breakpoint cluster (BCR)-ABL. Current frontline therapy for CML is imatinib, an inhibitor of BCR-ABL. Although imatinib has a high rate of clinical success in early phase CML, treatment resistance is problematic, particularly in later stages of the disease, and is(More)
The inhibition of DPP-IV by saxagliptin has been proposed to occur through formation of a covalent but reversible complex. To evaluate further the mechanism of inhibition, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the DPP-IV:saxagliptin complex. This structure reveals covalent attachment between S630 and the inhibitor nitrile carbon (C-O distance <1.3(More)
Pregnane X receptor (PXR) transactivation and binding assays have been developed into high-throughput assays, which are robust and reproducible (Z' > 0.5). For most compounds, there was a good correlation between the results of the transactivation and binding assays. EC(50) values of compounds in the transactivation assay correlated reasonably well with(More)
Continued structure-activity relationship (SAR) exploration within our previously disclosed azolopyrimidine containing dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors led us to focus on an imidazolopyrimidine series in particular. Further study revealed that by replacing the aryl substitution on the imidazole ring with a more polar carboxylic ester or amide, these(More)
Tau-tubulin kinase 1 (TTBK1) is a dual-specificity (serine/threonine and tyrosine) kinase belonging to the casein kinase 1 superfamily. TTBK1 is a neuron-specific kinase that regulates tau phosphorylation. Hyperphosphorylation of tau is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Two kinase-domain constructs of TTBK1 were expressed in a(More)
Transporter proteins are known to play a critical role in affecting the overall absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion characteristics of drug candidates. In addition to efflux transporters (P-gp, BCRP, MRP2, etc.) that limit absorption, there has been a renewed interest in influx transporters at the renal (OATs, OCTs) and hepatic (OATPs, BSEP,(More)
The cytokine TGF-β modulates a number of cellular activities and plays a critical role in development, hemostasis and physiology, as well as in diseases including cancer and fibrosis. TGF-β signals through two transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors: TGFβR1 and TGFβR2. Multiple structures of the TGFβR1 kinase domain are known, but the structure of(More)
Kynurenine aminotransferases convert kynurenine to kynurenic acid and play an important role in the tryptophan degradation pathway. Kynurenic acid levels in brain have been hypothesized to be linked to a number of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Kynurenine aminotransferase II (KATII) has proven to be a key modulator of kynurenic acid levels in brain(More)
The crystal structure of unphosphorylated p38alpha MAP kinase complexed with a representative pyrrolotriazine-based inhibitor led to the elucidation of the high-affinity binding mode of this class of compounds at the ATP-binding site. The ligand binds in an extended conformation, with one end interacting with the adenine-pocket hinge region, including a(More)
Conformationally constrained 2-pyridone analogue 2 is a potent Met kinase inhibitor with an IC50 value of 1.8 nM. Further SAR of the 2-pyridone based inhibitors of Met kinase led to potent 4-pyridone and pyridine N-oxide inhibitors such as 3 and 4. The X-ray crystallographic data of the inhibitor 2 bound to the ATP binding site of Met kinase protein(More)