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BACKGROUND Concern for a pandemic caused by a newly emerged avian influenza A virus has led to clinical trials with candidate vaccines as preparation for such an event. Most trials have involved vaccines for influenza A (H5N1), A (H7N7) or A (H9N2). OBJECTIVE To evaluate dosage-related safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated influenza A (H7N7) vaccine(More)
Identification of the host genetic factors that contribute to variation in vaccine responsiveness may uncover important mechanisms affecting vaccine efficacy. We carried out an integrative, longitudinal study combining genetic, transcriptional, and immunologic data in humans given seasonal influenza vaccine. We identified 20 genes exhibiting a(More)
BACKGROUND Annual vaccination is the primary means for preventing influenza. However, great interindividual variability exists in vaccine responses, the cellular events that take place in vivo after vaccination are poorly understood, and appropriate biomarkers for vaccine responsiveness have not been developed. METHODS We immunized a cohort of healthy(More)
BACKGROUND Serum antibody responses in humans to inactivated influenza A (H5N1), (H9N2) and A (H7) vaccines have been varied but frequently low, particularly for subunit vaccines without adjuvant despite hemagglutinin (HA) concentrations expected to induce good responses. DESIGN To help understand the low responses to subunit vaccines, we evaluated(More)
To identify an adjuvant that enhances antibody responses in respiratory secretions to inactivated influenza virus vaccine (IVV), a comparison was made of responses to intranasal vaccinations of mice with IVV containing monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), type I interferon (IFN) or cholera toxin B (CTB). Antibody in nasal secretions and lung wash fluids from mice(More)
BACKGROUND A new influenza A/H1N1 (pH1N1) virus emerged in April 2009, proceeded to spread worldwide, and was designated as an influenza pandemic. A/H1N1 viruses had circulated in 1918-1957 and 1977-2009 and were in the annual vaccine during 1977-2009. METHODS Serum antibody to the pH1N1 and seasonal A/H1N1 viruses was measured in 579 healthy adults at(More)
To improve immune responses to influenza vaccine, a trivalent inactivated vaccine containing 60 microg of the HA of each component (A/H3N2, A/H1N1, B) was compared to a licensed vaccine containing 15 microg of the HA of each. More local and systemic reactions were reported by subjects given the high dosage but only local pain and myalgias were significantly(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to determine whether the incidence of recovery and patterns of antibiotic susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria vary between intensive care units (ICUs) in a single teaching hospital. METHODS Culture and susceptibility results were collected prospectively for a 3-month period (April through June 1999) in each of(More)
BACKGROUND Serum antibody to the hemagglutinin (HA) surface protein of influenza virus induced by influenza vaccination is a correlate of protection against influenza. The neuraminidase (NA) protein is also on the surface of the virus; antibody to it has been shown to impair virus release from infected cells and to reduce the intensity of influenza(More)
Antibody to the neuraminidase (NA) antigen of influenza viruses has been shown to correlate with immunity to influenza in humans and animal models. In a previous report, we showed that an inactivated influenza vaccine containing 60microg of the hemagglutinin (HA) of each strain induced significantly more serum anti-HA antibody among elderly persons than did(More)