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Cultured human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were treated in vitro with PM(2.5)-enriched particles of soil-derived mineral dust from nine sites in the western United States. The particle samples simulate windblown dust and vehicle-generated emissions from unpaved roads. Five of the sites yielded relatively benign dust. Particles from three sites caused(More)
Capsaicinoids, found in less-than-lethal self-defense weapons, have been associated with respiratory failure and death in exposed animals and people. The studies described herein provide evidence for acute respiratory inflammation and damage to epithelial cells in experimental animals, and provide precise molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects(More)
3-Methylindole (3MI) is a naturally occurring pulmonary toxin that requires metabolic activation. Previous studies have shown that 3MI-induced pneumotoxicity resulted from cytochrome P-450-catalyzed dehydrogenation of 3MI to an electrophilic methylene imine (3-methyleneindolenine), which covalently bound to cellular macromolecules. Multiple cytochrome(More)
3-Methylindole (3 MI) is a selective pulmonary toxicant, and cytochrome P450 (P450) bioactivation of 3 MI, through hydroxylation, epoxidation, or dehydrogenation pathways, is a prerequisite for toxicity. CYP2F1 and CYP2F3 exclusively catalyze the dehydrogenation of 3 MI to 3-methyleneindolenine, without detectable formation of the hydroxylation or(More)
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