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Cultured human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were treated in vitro with PM(2.5)-enriched particles of soil-derived mineral dust from nine sites in the western United States. The particle samples simulate windblown dust and vehicle-generated emissions from unpaved roads. Five of the sites yielded relatively benign dust. Particles from three sites caused(More)
3-Methylindole (3MI) is a naturally occurring pulmonary toxin that requires metabolic activation. Previous studies have shown that 3MI-induced pneumotoxicity resulted from cytochrome P-450-catalyzed dehydrogenation of 3MI to an electrophilic methylene imine (3-methyleneindolenine), which covalently bound to cellular macromolecules. Multiple cytochrome(More)
Capsaicinoids, found in less-than-lethal self-defense weapons, have been associated with respiratory failure and death in exposed animals and people. The studies described herein provide evidence for acute respiratory inflammation and damage to epithelial cells in experimental animals, and provide precise molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects(More)
Members of the CYP2F gene subfamily are selectively expressed in lung tissues and have been implicated as important catalysts in the formation of reactive intermediates from several pneumotoxic chemicals. Human CYP2F1 bioactivates 3-methylindole (3MI), while mouse CYP2F2 bioactivates naphthalene. Although 3MI is a potent pneumotoxin in ruminants and(More)
3-Methylindole (3 MI) is a selective pulmonary toxicant, and cytochrome P450 (P450) bioactivation of 3 MI, through hydroxylation, epoxidation, or dehydrogenation pathways, is a prerequisite for toxicity. CYP2F1 and CYP2F3 exclusively catalyze the dehydrogenation of 3 MI to 3-methyleneindolenine, without detectable formation of the hydroxylation or(More)
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids produced by mouse CYP2B19 have been implicated in mechanisms regulating epidermal cornification (Ladd, P.A., Du, L., Capdevila, J.H., Mernaugh, R., Keeney, D.S., 2003. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids activate transglutaminases in situ and induce cornification of epidermal keratinocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 35184-35192). In this study, we(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare concentrations of 3-methyleneindolenine (3MEIN) in lung tissues obtained from feedlot cattle that died as a result of acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) and cattle that died as a result of other causes and to compare blood concentrations of 3MEIN in healthy feedlot cattle and feedlot cattle with AIP. STUDY POPULATION Blood samples and(More)
Activation of the capsaicin receptor (VR1 or TRPV1) in bronchial epithelial cells by capsaicinoids and other vanilloids promotes pro-inflammatory cytokine production and cell death. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of TRPV1-mediated calcium flux from extracellular sources as an initiator of these responses and to define additional(More)
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a calcium-selective ion channel expressed in human lung cells. We show that activation of the intracellular subpopulation of TRPV1 causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cell death in human bronchial epithelial and alveolar cells. TRPV1 agonist (nonivamide) treatment caused calcium release from the(More)
Indoline derivatives possess therapeutic potential within a variety of drug candidates. In this study, we found that indoline is aromatized by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes to produce indole through a novel dehydrogenation pathway. The indole products can potentially be bioactivated to toxic intermediates through an additional dehydrogenation step. For(More)