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Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) remains a major challenge to global health made worse by the spread of multidrug resistance. We therefore examined whether stimulating intracellular killing of mycobacteria through pharmacological enhancement of macroautophagy might provide a novel therapeutic strategy. Despite the resistance of MTB to killing by basal(More)
The phenothiazines chlorpromazine (CPZ) and thioridazine (TZ) have equal in vitro activities against antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These compounds have not been used as anti-M. tuberculosis agents because their in vitro activities take place at concentrations which are beyond those that are clinically achievable. In(More)
Despite the widespread use of the childhood vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the disease remains a serious global health problem. A successful vaccine against TB that replaces or boosts BCG would include antigens that induce or recall the appropriate T cell responses. Four Mycobacterium tuberculosis(More)
Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are environmental organisms classified under the broader category of nontuberculous mycobacteria. The most common RGM to cause human diseases are Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium massiliense. Infections due to the RGM are an emerging health problem in the United(More)
CD8 T cell immune responses are known not to be essential during the initial stages of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), but their presence becomes important as the chronic infection ensues. The basis of this is still not clear. In previous studies, we showed that CD8 T cells have a distinctive positioning in the architecture of the granuloma(More)
Expression of eight transporter genes of Escherichia coli K-12 and its DeltaacrAB mutant prior to and after induction of both strains to tetracycline resistance and after reversal of induced resistance were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. All transporter genes were overexpressed after induced resistance with acrF being 80-fold more(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is one of the world's leading killers, stealing 1.4 million lives and causing 8.7 million new and relapsed infections in 2011. The only vaccine against tuberculosis is BCG which demonstrates variable efficacy in adults worldwide. Human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis results in the influx of inflammatory cells to the lung(More)
The effect of thioridazine (TZ) was studied on the killing activity of human peripheral blood monocyte derived macrophages (HPBMDM) and of human macrophage cell line THP-1 at extracellular concentrations below those achievable clinically. These macrophages have nominal killing activity against bacteria and therefore, would not influence any activity that(More)
Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance of bacteria include efflux pumps which extrude the antibiotic prior to reaching its target. Phenothiazines inhibit the activity of some efflux pumps thereby altering the susceptibility of bacteria. This study demonstrated that chlorpromazine and thioridazine reduce the susceptibility of methicillin-resistant strains(More)
Azithromycin is a potent macrolide antibiotic with poorly understood antiinflammatory properties. Long-term use of azithromycin in patients with chronic inflammatory lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF), results in improved outcomes. Paradoxically, a recent study reported that azithromycin use in patients with CF is associated with increased(More)