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This paper presents PARADISE (PARAdigm for DIalogue System Evaluation), a general framework for evaluating spoken dialogue agents. The framework decouples task requirements from an agent's dialogue behaviors, supports comparisons among dialogue strategies, enables the calculation of performance over subdialogues and whole dialogues, specifies the relative(More)
The design of methods for performance evaluation is a major open research issue in the area of spoken language dialogue systems. This paper presents the PARADISE methodology for developing predictive models of spoken dialogue performance, and shows how to evaluate the predictive power and generalizability of such models. To illustrate the methodology, we(More)
Cue phrases are linguistic expressions such as now and well that function as explicit indicators of the structure of a discourse. For example, now may signal the beginning of a subtopic or a return to a previous topic, while well may mark subsequent material as a response to prior material, or as an explanatory comment. However, while cue phrases may convey(More)
This paper presents PARADISE (PARAdigm for DIalogue System Evaluation), a general framework for evaluating and comparing the performance of spoken dialogue agents. The framework decou-ples task requirements from an agent's dialogue behaviors, supports comparisons among dialogue strategies, enables the calculation of performance over subdialogues and whole(More)
The need to model the relation between discourse structure and linguistic features of utterances is almost universally acknowledged in the literature on discourse. However, there is only weak consensus on what the units of discourse structure are, or the criteria for recognizing and generating them. We present quantitative results of a two-part study using(More)
Certain spans of utterances in a discourse, referred to here as segments, are widely assumed to form coherent units. Further, the segmental structure of discourse has been claimed to constrain and be constrained by many phenomena. However, there is weak consensus on the nature of segments and the criteria for recognizing or generating them. We present(More)
While human tutors typically interact with students using spoken dialogue, most computer dialogue tutors are text-based. We have conducted two experiments comparing typed and spoken tutoring dialogues, one in a human-human scenario, and another in a human-computer scenario. In both experiments, we compared spoken versus typed tutoring for learning gains and(More)
Designing the dialogue policy of a spoken dialogue system involves many nontrivial choices. This paper presents a reinforcement learning approach for automatically optimizing a dialogue policy, which addresses the technical challenges in applying reinforcement learning to a working dialogue system with human users. We report on the design, construction and(More)
Previous pl on-based models of dialogue understanding hove been unobl e to oc-count for mony types of subdiologues present i n noturolly occurring converso-tions. One reason for this is that the models hove not clearly differentiated between the voroius woys thot on utterance con relote to a pl an structure representing o topic. In this poper we present a(More)