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Imprinted genes are characterized by predominant expression from one parental allele and differential DNA methylation. Few imprinted genes have been found to acquire a methylation mark in the male germ line, however, and only one of these, H19, has been studied in detail. We examined methylation of the Rasgrf1 and Gtl2 differentially methylated regions(More)
Repetitive DNA elements account for a substantial fraction of the mammalian genome. Many are subject to DNA methylation, which is known to undergo dynamic change during mouse germ cell development. We found that repeat sequences of three different classes retain high levels of methylation at E12.5, when methylation is erased from many single-copy genes.(More)
DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3A and DNMT3B are both active de novo DNA methyltransferases required for development, whereas DNMT3L, which has no demonstrable methyltransferase activity, is required for methylation of imprinted genes in the oocyte. We show here that different mechanisms are used to restrict access by these proteins to their targets during(More)
In mammals, methylation occurs almost exclusively on the CpG dinucleotide in DNA and shows no preference for sequence context surrounding this target. CpGs are found on many different sequence classes and methylation of this dinucleotide is associated with repression of transcription. Reprogramming methylation in the primordial germ cells establishes(More)
Epigenetic reprogramming occurs during oocyte growth in mice, a stage where a number of important events are occurring, including transcription of maternal mRNAs for storage in the mature egg, global transcriptional silencing and the acquisition of meiotic competence. Oocyte growth occurs in conjunction with follicular development over a period of many(More)
DNA methylation provides an attractive possible means for propagating the effects of environmental inputs during fetal life and impacting subsequent adult mental health, which is leading to increasing collaboration between molecular biologists, nutritionists and psychiatrists. An area of interest is the potential role of folate, not just in neural tube(More)
DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase genes are important for normal development in mice and humans. We describe here 11 pseudogenes spread among human, mouse, and rat belonging to this gene family, ranging from 1 pseudogene in humans to 7 in rat, all belonging to the Dnmt3 subfamily. All except 1 rat Dnmt3b pseudogene appear to be transcriptionally silent.(More)
The DNA methyltransferase 3-like (Dnmt3L) protein is a crucial cofactor in the germ line for the de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3a, which establishes imprints and represses transposable elements. We have previously shown that Dnmt3L transcription is regulated via three different promoters in mice, producing transcripts we term Dnmt3L(s) (stem cell),(More)
Regulation of DNMT1 is critical for epigenetic control of many genes and for genome stability. Using phylogenetic analysis we characterized a block of 27 nucleotides in the 3'UTR of Dnmt1 mRNA identical between humans and Xenopus and investigated the role of the individual elements contained within it. This region contains a cytoplasmic polyadenylation(More)
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