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Chronic cold exposure stimulates sympathetically driven thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), resulting in fat mobilization, weight loss, and compensatory hyperphagia. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons are implicated in stimulating food intake in starvation, but may also suppress sympathetic outflow to BAT. This study investigated whether the(More)
The pathogenic mechanisms underlying Batten disease are unclear. Patients uniformly possess autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) that are predominantly reactive with a region of GAD (amino acids 1 to 20) distinct from subjects with autoimmune type 1 diabetes or stiff-person syndrome. Batten patients did not possess autoantibodies against(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a major brain neurotransmitter, is expressed in neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) that project mainly to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), an important site of NPY release. NPY synthesis in the ARC is thought to be regulated by several factors, notably insulin, which may exert an inhibitory action. The effects of NPY(More)
BACKGROUND Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) plays a critical role in downregulation of antigen-activated immune response and polymorphisms at the CTLA-4 gene have been shown to be associated with several autoimmune diseases including type-1 diabetes (T1D). The etiological mutation was mapped to the CT60-A/G single nucleotide polymorphism(More)
NPYergic neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) that project to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are postulated to regulate food intake and energy balance. This projection is overactive in lactation and is thought to drive hyperphagia in this condition. We have explored further the relationship between hypothalamic NPY and food intake in(More)
BACKGROUND We have developed a silicon-based biosensor that generates a visual signal in response to nucleic acid targets. METHODS In this system, capture oligonucleotide probes are immobilized on the surface of the biosensor. Interaction of the capture probes with a complementary target and a biotinylated detector oligonucleotide allows initiation of(More)
There is tremendous scientific and clinical value to further improving the predictive power of autoantibodies because autoantibody-positive (AbP) children have heterogeneous rates of progression to clinical diabetes. This study explored the potential of gene expression profiles as biomarkers for risk stratification among 104 AbP subjects from the Diabetes(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease resulting from the complex interaction between multiple susceptibility genes, environmental factors and the immune system. Over 40 T1D susceptibility regions have been suggested by recent genome-wide association studies; however, the specific genes and their role in the disease remain elusive. The objective of(More)
BACKGROUND Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), commonly known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases characterized by monocytic infiltration. However, limited data have been reported on MCP-1 in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and the findings are inconclusive and inconsistent. METHODS In this(More)
OBJECTIVE Our previous gene expression microarray studies identified a number of genes differentially expressed in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and islet autoantibody-positive subjects. This study was designed to validate these gene expression changes in T1D patients and to identify gene expression changes in diabetes complications. RESEARCH DESIGH(More)