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Rapid urbanization has become an area of crucial concern in conservation owing to the radical changes in habitat structure and loss of species engendered by urban and suburban development. Here, we draw on recent mechanistic ecological studies to argue that, in addition to altered habitat structure, three major processes contribute to the patterns of(More)
Urban ecosystems are profoundly modified by human activities and thereby provide a unique ''nat-ural laboratory'' to study potential ecosystem responses to anthropogenic environmental changes. Because urban environments are now affected by urban heat islands, carbon dioxide domes, and high-level nitrogen deposition, to some extent they portend the future of(More)
This article maybe used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution , reselling , loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents(More)
A detailed fixed nitrogen (N) mass balance was constructed for the Central Arizona–Phoenix (CAP) ecosystem. Input of fixed N input to the ecosystem was 98 Gg y Ϫ1. Of this, humans deliberately imported or mediated the fixation of 51 Gg N y Ϫ1 ; combustion processes added another 36 Gg y Ϫ1. Fixation by desert plants, wet deposition, and surface water input(More)
We explored variations in inorganic soil nitrogen (N) concentrations across metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona, and the surrounding desert using a probability-based synoptic survey. Data were examined using spatial statistics on the entire region, as well as for the desert and urban sites separately. Concentrations of both NO 3-N and NH 4-N were markedly higher(More)
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