Diane G. Carnathan

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Pre-existing immunity to adenovirus (Ad) reduces the efficacy of Ad-based vaccines. The goal of this study was to define the prevalence, magnitude, functionality and phenotype of Ad-specific human T cells directly ex vivo. To study the magnitude of T-cell responses to Ad, we developed a highly reproducible whole Ad vector stimulation assay for use with(More)
OBJECTIVE Passive administration of broadly neutralizing antibodies has been shown to protect against both vaginal and rectal challenge in the simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)/macaque model of HIV transmission. However, the relative efficacy of antibody against the two modes of exposure is unknown and, given differences in the composition and(More)
The mechanisms underlying possible increased HIV-1 acquisition in adenovirus 5 (Ad5)-seropositive subjects vaccinated with Ad5-HIV-1 vectors in the Merck STEP trial remain unclear. We find that Ad5 serostatus does not predict Ad5-specific CD4(+) T cell frequency, and we did not observe durable significant differences in Ad5-specific CD4(+) T cells between(More)
UNLABELLED The possibility that vaccination with adenovirus (AdV) vectors increased mucosal T cell activation remains a central hypothesis to explain the potential enhancement of HIV acquisition within the Step trial. Modeling this within rhesus macaques is complicated because human adenoviruses, including human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5), are not(More)
A significant hurdle in vaccine development for many infectious pathogens is the ability to generate appropriate immune responses at the portal of entry, namely mucosal sites. The development of vaccine approaches resulting in secretory IgA and mucosal cellular immune responses against target pathogens is of great interest and in general, requires live(More)
An effective T-cell-based AIDS vaccine should induce strong HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in mucosal tissues without increasing the availability of target cells for the virus. Here, we evaluated five immunization strategies that include Human adenovirus-5 (AdHu5), Chimpanzee adenovirus-6 (AdC6) or -7 (AdC7), Vaccinia virus (VV), and DNA given by(More)
Autoimmunity results from a breakdown in tolerance mechanisms that regulate autoreactive lymphocytes. We recently showed that during innate immune responses, secretion of IL-6 by dendritic cells (DCs) maintained autoreactive B cells in an unresponsive state. In this study, we describe that TLR4-activated DCs from lupus-prone mice are defective in repressing(More)
Mother-to-infant transmission (MTIT) of HIV is a serious global health concern, with over 300,000 children newly infected in 2011. SIV infection of rhesus macaques (RMs) results in similar rates of MTIT to that of HIV in humans. In contrast, SIV infection of sooty mangabeys (SMs) rarely results in MTIT. The mechanisms underlying protection from MTIT in SMs(More)
Aberrant expression of regulatory receptors programmed death-1 (PD-1) and B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is linked with dysregulation and exhaustion of T lymphocytes during chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection; however, less is known about whether a similar process impacts B-lymphocyte function during HIV-1 infection. We(More)
Generating tier 2 HIV-neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses by immunization remains a challenging problem, and the immunological barriers to induction of such responses with Env immunogens remain unclear. Here, some rhesus monkeys developed autologous tier 2 nAbs upon HIV Env trimer immunization (SOSIP.v5.2) whereas others did not. This was not because HIV(More)