Diane E. Handy

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Reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, are generated in all cells by mitochondrial and enzymatic sources. Left unchecked, these reactive species can cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and membrane lipids. Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) is an intracellular antioxidant enzyme that enzymatically reduces hydrogen peroxide to(More)
Redox-dependent processes influence most cellular functions, such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Mitochondria are at the center of these processes, as mitochondria both generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that drive redox-sensitive events and respond to ROS-mediated changes in the cellular redox state. In this review, we examine the(More)
Hyperaldosteronism is associated with impaired vascular reactivity; however, the mechanisms by which aldosterone promotes endothelial dysfunction remain unknown. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) modulates vascular function by limiting oxidant stress to preserve bioavailable nitric oxide (NO(*)). Here we show that aldosterone (10(-9)-;10(-7) mol/l)(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3)-deficiency increases extracellular oxidant stress, decreases bioavailable nitric oxide, and promotes platelet activation. The aim of this study is to identify polymorphisms in the GPx-3 gene, examine their relationship to arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in a large series of children and young(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular calcification resembles bone formation and involves vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) transition to an osteoblast-like phenotype to express Runx2, a master osteoblast transcription factor. One possible mechanism by which Runx2 protein expression is induced is downregulation of inhibitory microRNAs (miR). METHODS AND RESULTS Human(More)
The term epigenetics was first used to refer to the complex interactions between the genome and the environment that are involved in development and differentiation in higher organisms. Today, this term is used to refer to heritable alterations that are not due to changes in DNA sequence. Rather, epigenetic modifications, or tags, such as DNA methylation(More)
BACKGROUND Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized, in part, by decreased endothelial nitric oxide (NO(·)) production and elevated levels of endothelin-1. Endothelin-1 is known to stimulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) via the endothelin-B receptor (ET(B)), suggesting that this signaling pathway is perturbed in PAH. Endothelin-1(More)
Recent studies have shown that all three subtypes of alpha2-adrenergic receptor (alpha2-AR) are found in brain. The purpose of this study was to map the subtype localization of the alpha2A- and alpha2B-ARs in brain structures. RNase protection shows that both the alpha2A- and alpha2B-ARs are detectable in cortex, cerebellum, pons-medulla, and hypothalamus.(More)
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in mammals that has been shown to exert its function through selenoproteins. Whereas optimal levels of Se in the diet have important health benefits, a recent clinical trial has suggested that supplemental intake of Se above the adequate level potentially may raise the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However,(More)
Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) is a crucial antioxidant enzyme, the deficiency of which promotes atherogenesis. Accordingly, we examined the mechanisms by which GPx-1 deficiency enhances endothelial cell activation and inflammation. In human microvascular endothelial cells, we found that GPx-1 deficiency augments intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)(More)