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Recent studies have shown that all three subtypes of alpha2-adrenergic receptor (alpha2-AR) are found in brain. The purpose of this study was to map the subtype localization of the alpha2A- and alpha2B-ARs in brain structures. RNase protection shows that both the alpha2A- and alpha2B-ARs are detectable in cortex, cerebellum, pons-medulla, and hypothalamus.(More)
Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) correlate with increased risk of cardiovascular and Alzheimer diseases. We studied the effect of elevated Hcy on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to explore the possibility of a vascular link between the 2 diseases. On a hyperhomocysteinemic diet, cystathionine beta-synthase (Cbs)-heterozygous mice develop(More)
Cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1), a selenocysteine-containing enzyme, plays a central role in protecting cells from oxidative injury. GPx-1 is ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic cells where it reduces hydrogen and lipid peroxides to alcohols. Adenosine, which is released from stressed or injured cells, protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury(More)
Previous studies have shown that high glucose increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) in endothelial cells that contributes to vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Accumulation of ROS is due to dysregulated redox balance between ROS-producing systems and antioxidant systems. Previous research from our laboratory has shown that high glucose decreases(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular calcification resembles bone formation and involves vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) transition to an osteoblast-like phenotype to express Runx2, a master osteoblast transcription factor. One possible mechanism by which Runx2 protein expression is induced is downregulation of inhibitory microRNAs (miR). METHODS AND RESULTS Human(More)
BACKGROUND Free radical injury contributes to cardiac dysfunction during ischemia-reperfusion. Detoxification of free radicals requires maintenance of reduced glutathione (GSH) by NADPH. The principal mechanism responsible for generating NADPH and maintaining GSH during periods of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion remains unknown. Glucose-6-phosphate(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell injury contributes to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease and myocardial dysfunction. Protection against ROS requires maintenance of endogenous thiol pools, most importantly, reduced glutathione (GSH), by NADPH. In cardiomyocytes, GSH resides in two separate cellular compartments: the mitochondria and(More)
Salt sensitivity is a common trait in patients with essential hypertension and seems to have both an inherited and an acquired component (eg, is influenced by aging and renal insufficiency). Experimental evidence suggests that salt loading induces hypertension via a neurogenic mechanism mediated by the alpha2-adrenergic receptors (alpha2-AR). To explore the(More)
Nitric oxide (NO*) is known to exert its effects via guanylyl cyclase and cyclic GMP-dependent pathways and by cyclic GMP-independent pathways, including the posttranslational modification of proteins. Much ongoing research is focused on defining the mechanisms of NO*-mediated protein modification, the identity and function of the modified proteins, and the(More)
We investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) exposure on mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in human microvascular endothelial cells. TNF-α caused a significant suppression of a dual specificity phosphatase, DUSP4, that regulates ERK1/2 activation. Thus, we hypothesized that suppression of DUSP4 enhances cell survival by increasing(More)