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A biphasic developmental cycle whereby highly resistant small-cell variants (SCVs) are generated from large-cell variants (LCVs) is considered fundamental to the virulence of Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of human Q fever. In this study a proteome analysis of C. burnetii developmental forms was conducted to provide insight into their unique(More)
UNLABELLED Host cell-free (axenic) culture of Coxiella burnetii in acidified citrate cysteine medium-2 (ACCM-2) has provided important opportunities for investigating the biology of this naturally obligate intracellular pathogen and enabled the development of tools for genetic manipulation. However, ACCM-2 has complex nutrient sources that preclude a(More)
The inability to propagate obligate intracellular pathogens under axenic (host cell-free) culture conditions imposes severe experimental constraints that have negatively impacted progress in understanding pathogen virulence and disease mechanisms. Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of human Q (Query) fever, is an obligate intracellular bacterial(More)
Central to Q fever pathogenesis is replication of the causative agent, Coxiella burnetii, within a phagolysosome-like parasitophorous vacuole (PV) in mononuclear phagocytes. C. burnetii modulates PV biogenesis and other host cell functions, such as apoptotic signaling, presumably via the activity of proteins delivered to the host cytosol by a Dot/Icm type(More)
We recently described acidified citrate cysteine medium (ACCM), which supports host cell-free (axenic) growth of Coxiella burnetii. After 6 days of incubation, greater than 3 logs of growth was achieved with the avirulent Nine Mile phase II (NMII) strain. Here, we describe modified ACCM and culture conditions that support improved growth of C. burnetii and(More)
Coxiella burnetii is a gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of human Q fever. The lack of methods to genetically manipulate C. burnetii significantly impedes the study of this organism. We describe here the cloning and characterization of a C. burnetii ftsZ mutant generated by mariner-based Himar1 transposon (Tn)(More)
The intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii directs biogenesis of a phagolysosome-like parasitophorous vacuole (PV), in which it replicates. The organism encodes a Dot/Icm type IV secretion system (T4SS) predicted to deliver to the host cytosol effector proteins that mediate PV formation and other cellular events. All C. burnetii isolates carry a(More)
Q fever is a widespread zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Diagnosis of Q fever is usually based on serological testing of patient serum. The diagnostic antigen of test kits is formalin-fixed phase I and phase II organisms of the Nine Mile reference strain. Deficiencies of this antigen include (i) potential for cross-reactivity with other pathogens; (ii)(More)
Reports implicating important roles for cholesterol and cholesterol-rich lipid rafts in host-pathogen interactions have largely employed sterol sequestering agents and biosynthesis inhibitors. Because the pleiotropic effects of these compounds can complicate experimental interpretation, we developed a new model system to investigate cholesterol requirements(More)
Pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) was isolated, purified, and partially characterized from elk and moose placenta. The procedure, which was monitored by bovine PSPB (bPSPB) RIA, included homogenization and extraction in aqueous solution, acidic and ammonium sulfate precipitation, and ion exchange, gel filtration, and affinity chromatographies. The(More)