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Early global deprivation of institutionalized children may result in persistent specific cognitive and behavioral deficits. In order to examine brain dysfunction underlying these deficits, we have applied positron emission tomography using 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose in 10 children (6 males, 4 females, mean age 8.8 years) adopted from Romanian(More)
Major frontal lobe tracts and corpus callosum (CC) were investigated in 32 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, mean age: 5 years), 12 nonautistic developmentally impaired children (DI, mean age: 4.6 years), and 16 typically developing children (TD, mean age: 5.5 years) using diffusion tensor imaging tractography and tract-based spatial statistics.(More)
Serotonin content, serotonin uptake sites, and serotonin receptor binding measured in animal studies are all higher in the developing brain, compared with adult values, and decline before puberty. Furthermore, a disruption of synaptic connectivity in sensory cortical regions can result from experimental increase or decrease of brain serotonin before(More)
To investigate frontal lobe white matter in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 50 ASD children (mean age: 57.5 +/- 29.2 months, 43 males) and 16 typically developing children (mean age: 82.1 +/- 41.4 months, 11 males). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was significantly higher for whole(More)
Vaults are cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein organelles that are highly conserved among diverse eukaryotic species. Their mass (12.9 MDa), diameter (26-35 nm) and shape (two halves, each with eightfold radial symmetry) have recently been determined and are similar to those ascribed to the central plug (or transporter) of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). The size(More)
The structure of rat liver vault ribonucleoprotein particles was examined using several different staining techniques in conjunction with EM and digestion with hydrolytic enzymes. Quantitative scanning transmission EM demonstrates that each vault particle has a total mass of 12.9 +/- 1 MD and contains two centers of mass, suggesting that each vault particle(More)
We examined the brain organization for language and auditory functions in five high-functioning autistic and five normal adults, using [15O]-water positron emission tomography (PET). Cerebral blood flow was studied for rest, listening to tones, and listening to, repeating, and generating sentences. The autism group (compared to the control group) showed (a)(More)
OBJECTIVES To analyze interictal patterns of thalamic nuclei glucose metabolism and benzodiazepine receptor binding in patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using high-resolution 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) and [11C]flumazenil (FMZ) PET. BACKGROUND Structural and glucose metabolic abnormalities of the thalamus are(More)
1. In this pilot study, the authors investigated the hypotheses there are increased concentrations of lactate in brain and plasma and reduced brain concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) in autistic children. 2. NAA and lactate levels in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe and the cerebellum of 9 autistic children were compared to 5 sibling controls using(More)
PURPOSE Ictal electrographic changes were analyzed on intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG) in children with medically refractory epileptic spasms to assess the dynamic changes of ictal discharges associated with spasms and their relation to interictal epileptiform activity and neuroimaging findings. METHODS We studied a consecutive series of 15(More)