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OBJECTIVE To develop the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III) to overcome the limitations inherent in lens classification using LOCS II. These limitations include unequal intervals between standards, only one standard for color grading, use of integer grading, and wide 95% tolerance limits. DESIGN AND RESULTS The LOCS III contains an(More)
In word sense disambiguation (WSD), the heuristic of choosing the most common sense is extremely powerful because the distribution of the senses of a word is often skewed. The problem with using the predominant, or first sense heuristic, aside from the fact that it does not take surrounding context into account, is that it assumes some quantity of(More)
In this paper we describe the English Lexical Substitution task for SemEval. In the task, annotators and systems find an alternative substitute word or phrase for a target word in context. The task involves both finding the synonyms and disambiguating the context. Participating systems are free to use any lexical resource. There is a subtask which requires(More)
A multiword is compositional if its meaning can be expressed in terms of the meaning of its constituents. In this paper, we collect and analyse the compositionality judgments for a range of compound nouns using Mechanical Turk. Unlike existing compositionality datasets, our dataset has judgments on the contribution of constituent words as well as judgments(More)
We propose a method for identifying diathesis alternations where a particular argument type is seen in slots which have different grammatical roles in the alternating forms. The method uses selectional preferences acquired as probability distributions over WordNet. Preferences for the target slots are compared using a measure of distributional similarity.(More)
This work investigates the variation in a word's dis-tributionally nearest neighbours with respect to the similarity measure used. We identify one type of variation as being the relative frequency of the neighbour words with respect to the frequency of the target word. We then demonstrate a three-way connection between relative frequency of similar words, a(More)
Declaration I hereby declare that this thesis has not been submitted, either in the same or different form, to this or any other university for a degree. Acknowledgements Firstly, I wish to thank Gerald Gazdar, my supervisor, for all his helpful comments, suggestions and words of encouragement throughout my doctorate. He has provided valuable feedback(More)
Distributions of the senses of words are often highly skewed. This fact is exploited by word sense disambiguation (WSD) systems which back off to the predominant sense of a word when contextual clues are not strong enough. The domain of a document has a strong influence on the sense distribution of words, but it is not feasible to produce large manually(More)