Diana M. S. Karanja

Learn More
Although accurate assessment of the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni is important for the design and evaluation of control programs, the most widely used tools for diagnosis are limited by suboptimal sensitivity, slow turn-around-time, or inability to distinguish current from former infections. Recently, two tests that detect circulating cathodic antigen(More)
A survey of 1,246 children 10-12 years old in 32 primary schools in Kenya near Lake Victoria was conducted to determine prevalence and distribution of schistosome and geohelminth infections. Stool and urine samples were collected and examined for eggs of Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and intestinal helminths. A questionnaire was used to obtain(More)
BACKGROUND The near exclusive use of praziquantel (PZQ) for treatment of human schistosomiasis has raised concerns about the possible emergence of drug-resistant schistosomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We measured susceptibility to PZQ of isolates of Schistosoma mansoni obtained from patients from Kisumu, Kenya continuously exposed to infection as a(More)
Persons employed as vehicle washers in the town of Kisumu, Kenya are exposed for several hours each day to water in Lake Victoria that contains Schistosoma mansoni-infected Biomphalaria pherifferi snails. This results in a focus of high endemicity for schistosomiasis and these persons have very high concentrations of eggs in their feces (mean +/- SD = 1,469(More)
Studies were carried out in three villages in western Kenya on the biting behavior of Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus. Blood feeding behavior and departure from houses were studied under the impact of permethrin-impregnated eaves-sisal curtains. Only 2-13% of the female vector population was collected biting before 2200(More)
Praziquantel is the drug of choice for schistosomiasis chemotherapy. Although the exact mechanism of how praziquantel kills schistosomes remains poorly understood, the immune response of the host is an important factor in drug efficacy. It is thus possible that disease states of humans that lead to immunodeficiencies, such as infection with human(More)
We evaluated a commercial point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test for assessing Schistosoma mansoni infection prevalence in areas at risk. Overall, 4,405 school-age children in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda provided urine for POC-CCA testing and stool for Kato-Katz assays. By latent class analysis, one POC-CCA test(More)
In vitro studies suggest that CD4(+) cells with a T helper 2 (Th2) phenotype better support human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication than do cells of the Th1 phenotype. As a result, Th2-type immune responses may be substantially affected by HIV-1 coinfection. To test this hypothesis, a comparison was done of proliferation and cytokine(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate trends in the efficacy of praziquantel (PZQ) suggestive of the emergence of drug resistance against Schistosoma mansoni infection after 12.5 years of intense, repeated use in a small geographic area along the shores of Lake Victoria. METHODS As part of a longitudinal study, 178 men occupationally exposed to schistosomes were(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have reported age-dependent development of resistance to reinfection by schistosomes and identified immunological correlates of this resistance. However, whether resistance exists that is independent of age effects has been questioned. We did a longitudinal investigation of reinfection by Schistosoma mansoni in an adult(More)