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BACKGROUND Geohelminth infections are common in rural western Kenya, but risk factors and effects among pregnant women are not clear. METHODOLOGY During a community-based cross-sectional survey, pregnant women were interviewed and asked to provide a blood sample and a single fecal sample. Hemoglobin was measured and a blood slide examined for malaria.(More)
Although accurate assessment of the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni is important for the design and evaluation of control programs, the most widely used tools for diagnosis are limited by suboptimal sensitivity, slow turn-around-time, or inability to distinguish current from former infections. Recently, two tests that detect circulating cathodic antigen(More)
We evaluated a commercial point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test for assessing Schistosoma mansoni infection prevalence in areas at risk. Overall, 4,405 school-age children in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda provided urine for POC-CCA testing and stool for Kato-Katz assays. By latent class analysis, one POC-CCA test(More)
BACKGROUND The near exclusive use of praziquantel (PZQ) for treatment of human schistosomiasis has raised concerns about the possible emergence of drug-resistant schistosomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We measured susceptibility to PZQ of isolates of Schistosoma mansoni obtained from patients from Kisumu, Kenya continuously exposed to infection as a(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies suggest that humans can acquire immunity to reinfection with schistosomes, most probably due to immunologic mechanisms acquired after exposure to dying schistosome worms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We followed longitudinally two cohorts of adult males occupationally exposed to Schistosoma mansoni by washing cars (120 men)(More)
Schistosomiasis mansoni is usually a chronic infection that leads to long-term, systemic exposure to schistosome antigens. Experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection is associated with immunoregulatory mechanisms, including T regulatory cells (Treg) that may help control morbidity and dampen resistance to re-infection. We now show that some schistosomiasis(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have reported age-dependent development of resistance to reinfection by schistosomes and identified immunological correlates of this resistance. However, whether resistance exists that is independent of age effects has been questioned. We did a longitudinal investigation of reinfection by Schistosoma mansoni in an adult(More)
BACKGROUND Age prevalence curves for areas in which schistosomiasis is endemic suggest that humans develop partial immunity to reinfection beginning in early adolescence. We conducted a 2-year longitudinal study to determine whether children infected with Schistosoma mansoni develop protection-related immune responses after treatment with praziquantel and(More)
Schistosome and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are recognized as major global public health problems, causing severe and subtle morbidity, including significant educational and nutritional effects in children. Although effective and safe drugs are available, ensuring access to these drugs by all those at risk of schistosomiasis and STHs is still(More)
Intestinal schistosomiasis continues to be a significant cause of morbidity among communities located around Lake Victoria and on its islands. Although epidemiological surveys have been conducted in other areas bordering the lake in western Kenya, Mbita district and its adjacent islands have never been surveyed, largely due to logistical challenges in(More)