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The engrailed gene has been identified in Drosophila as an important developmental gene involved in the control of segmentation. Here we describe the embryonic expression of a chicken gene, ChickEn (Darnell et al.: J Cell Biol 103(5):311a, 1986), which contains homology to the Drosophila engrailed gene. Northern blots of early chick embryo tissue poly(A)+(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, abundant, noncoding RNAs that modulate protein abundance by interfering with target mRNA translation or stability. miRNAs are detected in organisms from all domains and may regulate 30% of transcripts in vertebrates. Understanding miRNA function requires a detailed determination of expression, yet this has not been reported in(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) attenuate gene expression by means of translational inhibition and mRNA degradation. They are abundant, highly conserved, and predicted to regulate a large number of transcripts. Several hundred miRNA classes are known, and many are associated with cell proliferation and differentiation. Many exhibit tissue-specific expression, which aids(More)
The cells that are normally fated to form notochord occupy a region at the rostral tip of the primitive streak at late gastrula/early neurula stages of avian and mammalian development. If these cells are surgically removed from avian embryos in culture, a notochord will nonetheless form in the majority of cases. The origin of this reconstituted notochord(More)
The notochord normally arises from committed cells in the rostral tip of the primitive streak. After removal of these cells from the avian gastrula, embryos with notochords nevertheless develop in the majority of cases. A region required for the formation of this reconstituted notochord lies lateral to the primitive streak. In the present study we have(More)
Previous studies on neural induction have identified regionally localized inducing activities, signaling molecules, potential competence factors and various other features of this important, early differentiation event. In this paper, we have developed an improved model system for analyzing neural induction and patterning using transverse blastoderm(More)
An important and ongoing focus of biomedical and agricultural avian research is to understand gene function, which for a significant fraction of genes remains unknown. A first step is to determine when and where genes are expressed during development and in the adult. Whole mount in situ hybridization gives precise spatial and temporal resolution of gene(More)
GEISHA (Gallus Expression In Situ Hybridization Analysis; http://geisha.arizona.edu) is an in situ hybridization gene expression and genomic resource for the chicken embryo. This update describes modifications that enhance its utility to users. During the past 5 years, GEISHA has undertaken a significant restructuring to more closely conform to the data(More)