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The digestive tract hosts trillions of bacteria that interact with the immune system and can influence the balance between pro-inflammatory and regulatory immune responses. Recent studies suggest that alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota may be linked with the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Data from the biobreeding diabetes(More)
RIP-B7.1 transgenic mice express B7.1 costimulatory molecules in pancreatic islets and develop diabetes after treatment with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a synthetic double-stranded RNA and agonist of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and retinoic acid-inducible protein I. We used this model to investigate the role of TLR pathways and intestinal(More)
Microbes were hypothesized to play a key role in the progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We used the LEW1.WR1 rat model of Kilham rat virus (KRV)-induced T1D to test the hypothesis that the intestinal microbiota is involved in the mechanism leading to islet destruction. Treating LEW1.WR1 rats with KRV and a combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole(More)
In order to assess potential associations between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype, functional GI disorders and fecal microbiota, we recruited simplex families, which had only a single ASD proband and neurotypical (NT) siblings, through the Simons Simplex Community at the Interactive Autism Network (SSC@IAN). Fecal samples and metadata related to(More)
Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are multifactorial disease processes in which bacteria may play a role either in infection or stimulation of the inflammatory process. Rhinosinusitis has been historically studied with culture-based techniques, which have implicated several common pathogens in disease states. More recently, the NIH Human Microbiome Project has(More)
BACKGROUND Increased maternal body mass index (BMI) is a robust risk factor for later pediatric obesity. Accumulating evidence suggests that human milk (HM) may attenuate the transfer of obesity from mother to offspring, potentially through its effects on early development of the infant microbiome. OBJECTIVES Our objective was to identify early(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory disorder of the paranasal sinuses in which bacteria are implicated. Culture-based assays are commonly used in clinical and research practice; however, culture conditions may not accurately detect the full range of microorganisms present in a sample. The objective of this study was to determine the(More)
BACKGROUND Small colony variants (SCVs) are a metabolically inactive form of bacteria that can be difficult to eradicate. To examine whether SCVs contribute to Staphylococcus aureus persistence in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), we compared the prevalence of S. aureus SCVs in CRS patients and healthy controls. METHODS Endoscopically guided middle meatus(More)
We tested the hypothesis that alterations in the intestinal microbiota are linked with the progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Herein, we present results from a study performed in subjects with islet autoimmunity living in the U.S. High-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and adjustment for sex, age, autoantibody presence, and HLA indicated(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a prevalent multifactorial disease process in which bacteria are believed to play a role in the propagation of inflammation. Multiple subtypes of CRS have been described based on clinical and pathologic features, but a detailed examination of the sinus microbiota in patients with CRS and its clinical subtypes has(More)