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Microbes were hypothesized to play a key role in the progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We used the LEW1.WR1 rat model of Kilham rat virus (KRV)-induced T1D to test the hypothesis that the intestinal microbiota is involved in the mechanism leading to islet destruction. Treating LEW1.WR1 rats with KRV and a combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole(More)
In order to assess potential associations between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype, functional GI disorders and fecal microbiota, we recruited simplex families, which had only a single ASD proband and neurotypical (NT) siblings, through the Simons Simplex Community at the Interactive Autism Network (SSC@IAN). Fecal samples and metadata related to(More)
Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are multifactorial disease processes in which bacteria may play a role either in infection or stimulation of the inflammatory process. Rhinosinusitis has been historically studied with culture-based techniques, which have implicated several common pathogens in disease states. More recently, the NIH Human Microbiome Project has(More)
We tested the hypothesis that alterations in the intestinal microbiota are linked with the progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Herein, we present results from a study performed in subjects with islet autoimmunity living in the U.S. High-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and adjustment for sex, age, autoantibody presence, and HLA indicated(More)
Mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene), an early event in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, is present in 70-80% of sporadic human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. To test the hypothesis that mutation of the APC gene alters microbial interactions with host intestinal mucosa prior to the development of polyposis, culture-independent methods(More)
Obesity and its co-morbidities, such as fatty liver disease, are increasingly prevalent worldwide health problems. Intestinal microorganisms have emerged as critical factors linking diet to host physiology and metabolic function, particularly in the context of lipid homeostasis. We previously demonstrated that deletion of the cytoplasmic lipid drop (CLD)(More)
Objective. Gelatin-thrombin matrix (GTM) tissue sealant use was previously identified as an independent predictor of pelvic infection following hysterectomies. We aim to elucidate contributing factors by assessing influence of GTM on bacterial colony formation and characterizing bacteria present at the vaginal cuff. Methods. Escherichia coli was incubated(More)
The live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has generally been more efficacious than the inactivated vaccine in children. However, LAIV is not recommended for HIV-infected children because of insufficient data. We compared cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune responses to the 2013-2014 LAIV quadrivalent (LAIV4) in HIV-infected and uninfected children 2-25(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune proinflammatory disease with no effective intervention. A major obstacle in developing new immunotherapies for T1D is the lack of means for monitoring immune responsiveness to experimental therapies. The LEW1.WR1 rat develops autoimmunity following infection with the parvovirus Kilham rat virus (KRV) via mechanisms(More)
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