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Most proteins interact with only a few other proteins while a small number of proteins (hubs) have many interaction partners. Hub proteins and non-hub proteins differ in several respects; however, understanding is not complete about what properties characterize the hubs and set them apart from proteins of low connectivity. Therefore, we have investigated(More)
Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem(More)
It has been known for the last couple of decades that proteins evolve partly through rearrangements of larger fragments, typically domains. These units are considered the basic modules of protein structure, evolution and function. In the last few years, the analysis of protein-domain rearrangements has provided us with functional and evolutionary insights(More)
Most eukaryotic proteins are multi-domain proteins that are created from fusions of genes, deletions and internal repetitions. An investigation of such evolutionary events requires a method to find the domain architecture from which each protein originates. Therefore, we defined a novel measure, domain distance, which is calculated as the number of domains(More)
Gene duplication is postulated to have played a major role in the evolution of biological novelty. Here, gene duplication is examined across levels of biological organization in an attempt to create a unified picture of the mechanistic process by which gene duplication can have played a role in generating biodiversity. Neofunctionalization and(More)
Comparative studies of the proteomes from different organisms have provided valuable information about protein domain distribution in the kingdoms of life. Earlier studies have been limited by the fact that only about 50% of the proteomes could be matched to a domain. Here, we have extended these studies by including less well-defined domain definitions,(More)
The high retention of duplicate genes in the genome of Paramecium tetraurelia has led to the hypothesis that most of the retained genes have persisted because of constraints due to gene dosage. This and other possible mechanisms are discussed in the light of expectations from population genetics and systems biology.
Most eukaryotic proteins consist of multiple domains created through gene fusions or internal duplications. The most frequent change of a domain architecture (DA) is insertion or deletion of a domain at the N or C terminus. Still, the mechanisms underlying the evolution of multidomain proteins are not very well studied. Here, we have studied the evolution(More)
Genetic mapping on fully sequenced individuals is transforming understanding of the relationship between molecular variation and variation in complex traits. Here we report a combined sequence and genetic mapping analysis in outbred rats that maps 355 quantitative trait loci for 122 phenotypes. We identify 35 causal genes involved in 31 phenotypes,(More)
Proteins evolve not only through point mutations but also by insertion and deletion events, which affect the length of the protein. It is well known that such indel events most frequently occur in surface-exposed loops. However, detailed analysis of indel events in distantly related and fast-evolving proteins is hampered by the difficulty involved in(More)