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Development of methods that allow an efficient expression of exogenous genes in animals would provide tools for gene function studies, treatment of diseases and for obtaining gene products. Therefore, we have developed a hydrodynamics-based procedure for expressing transgenes in mice by systemic administration of plasmid DNA. Using cDNA of luciferase and(More)
In response to DNA damage, cells activate checkpoint pathways that prevent cell cycle progression. In fission yeast and mammals, mitotic arrest in response to DNA damage requires inhibitory Cdk phosphorylation regulated by Chk1. This study indicates that Chk1 is required for function of the DNA damage checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae but acts through(More)
We describe here a newly identified member of the human B7 family, designated B7 homolog 3 (B7-H3), that shares 20-27% amino acid identity with other B7 family members. B7-H3 mRNA is not detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although it is found in various normal tissues and in several tumor cell lines. Expression of B7-H3 protein, however, can(More)
Cryptochromes are blue, ultraviolet-A photoreceptors. They were first characterized for Arabidopsis and are also found in ferns and algae; they appear to be ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. They are flavoproteins similar in sequence to photolyases, their presumptive evolutionary ancestors. Cryptochromes mediate a variety of light responses, including(More)
Bcl-2 and related proteins are key regulators of apoptosis or programmed cell death implicated in human disease including cancer. We recently showed that cell-permeable Bcl-2 binding peptides could induce apoptosis of human myeloid leukemia in vitro and suppress its growth in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Here we report the discovery of HA14-1, a(More)
Ced-4 and Apaf-1 belong to a major class of apoptosis regulators that contain caspase-recruitment (CARD) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domains. Nod1, a protein with an NH2-terminal CARD-linked to a nucleotide-binding domain and a COOH-terminal segment with multiple leucine-rich repeats, was identified. Nod-1 was found to bind to multiple caspases(More)
The receptive field properties of cells in layers 2, 3, and 4 of area 17 (V1) of the monkey were studied quantitatively using colored and broad-band gratings, bars, and spots. Many cells in all regions studied responded selectively to stimulus orientation, direction, and color. Nearly all cells (95%) in layers 2 and 3 exhibited statistically significant(More)
Chk2 is a protein kinase that is activated in response to DNA damage and may regulate cell cycle arrest. We generated Chk2-deficient mouse cells by gene targeting. Chk2-/- embryonic stem cells failed to maintain gamma-irradiation-induced arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Chk2-/- thymocytes were resistant to DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Chk2-/-(More)
A new powdery mildew resistance gene designated Pm21, from Haynaldia villosa, a relative of wheat, has been identified and incorporated into wheat through an alien translocation line. Cytogenetic and biochemical analyses showed that chromosome arms 6VS and 6AL were involved in this translocation. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was(More)