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Molecular adaptation is typically assumed to proceed by sequential fixation of beneficial mutations. In diploids, this picture presupposes that for most adaptive mutations, the homozygotes have a higher fitness than the heterozygotes. Here, we show that contrary to this expectation, a substantial proportion of adaptive mutations should display heterozygote(More)
Gromita is a fully integrated and efficient graphical user interface (GUI) to the recently updated molecular dynamics suite Gromacs, version 4. Gromita is a cross-platform, perl/tcl-tk based, interactive front end designed to break the command line barrier and introduce a new user-friendly environment to run molecular dynamics simulations through Gromacs.(More)
An understanding of the distribution of natural patterns of genetic variation is relevant to such fundamental biological fields as evolution and development. One recent approach to understanding such patterns has been to focus on the constraints that may arise as a function of the network or pathway context in which genes are embedded. Despite theoretical(More)
Conserved, ultraconserved and other classes of constrained elements (collectively referred as CNEs here), identified by comparative genomics in a wide variety of genomes, are non-randomly distributed across chromosomes. These elements are defined using various degrees of conservation between organisms and several thresholds of minimal length. We here(More)
Repeats or Transposable Elements (TEs) are highly repeated sequence stretches, present in virtually all eukaryotic genomes. We explore the distribution of representative TEs from all major classes in entire chromosomes across various organisms. We employ two complementary approaches, the scaling of block entropy and box-counting. Both converge to the(More)
Adaptation in diploids is predicted to proceed via mutations that are at least partially dominant in fitness. Recently we argued that many adaptive mutations might also be commonly overdominant in fitness. Natural (directional) selection acting on overdominant mutations should drive them into the population but then, instead of bringing them to fixation,(More)
Adaptation in diploids is predicted to proceed via mutations that are at least partially dominant in fitness. Recently we argued that many adaptive mutations might also be commonly overdominant in fitness. Natural (directional) selection acting on overdominant mutations should drive them into the population but then, instead of bringing them to fixation,(More)